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Microglia Steady-State Markers

During nonpathological conditions, microglia are maintained in a steady, or ramified, state. These cells display a distinctive morphology defined by a stable, nonmotile cell body and an extensive network of thin processes that continually elongate and retract. As the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, steady-state microglia use these processes to scan the surrounding area for disturbances in homeostasis that need to be resolved. These microglia are also involved in many nonpathological roles in the adult brain including maintenance of synaptic plasticity, remodeling of dendritic spines during learning, and regulation of postnatal neurogenesis. Steady-state microglia exhibit several markers, such as AIF-1/Iba1, CD11b/Integrin alpha M, CD45, CX3CR1, and P2RY12, which can be used to differentiate them from activated microglia. R&D Systems offers a range of research tools needed for investigating steady-state and activated microglia.