In adult tissue, muscle-derived stem cells are believed to be a distinct population of cells, which promote muscle regeneration in response to injury and disease. At least three subpopulations of muscle stem cells are thought to exist. These include satellite cells, cells in the wall of the dorsal aorta, and myogenic side population cells. Undifferentiated satellite cells can be identified by the expression of cell surface markers such as M-Cadherin and Caveolin-1. In addition, R&D Systems offers products to distinguish differentiated smooth muscle (VE-Cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin), skeletal muscle (FABP3), and cardiac muscle (Desmin, Myosin Heavy Chain) cells from muscle precursors, such as satellite cells. Controlling myogenesis through stem cell function is a growing research focus for age-related degenerative muscular diseases and dystrophies.