Other Morphogens

A variety of other molecules outside of the Wnt, FGF, Notch, Hedgehog, and TGF-beta families have been characterized as morphogens. These include members of the TBX family of transcription factors involved in heart and limb development, the Twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors involved in skeletal development, Protogenin and the LRRTM proteins associated with formation of the central nervous system, and Epimorphin, a protein associated with branching morphogenesis.