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Phospholipases, Small GTPases, and Other Molecules in the Akt Pathway

Phospholipases, such as phospholipase C (PLC), hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP3), both of which are second messenger signaling molecules. The Ras superfamily of small GTPases are signaling proteins that are active when GTP-bound and inactive following hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP. The phospholipases, GTPases, and other molecules listed below are all associated with Akt serine-threonine kinase signaling, either upstream or downstream of its activation.