Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate physiological cellular functions, but high concentrations of ROS can also cause damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. The expression of specific ROS sensor proteins and the formation of DNA and protein adducts increase in response to high concentrations of ROS, creating measurable indicators of oxidative stress. For example, the presence of harmful pro-oxidant molecules can be detected and quantified via reactions with thiobarbituric acid (i.e., TBARS). Alternatively, the detection of accumulated carboxymethyl lysine adducts formed by ROS can be used as a measure of oxidative stress. Additionally, as oxidative stress is involved in multiple pathological conditions, inhibitors have been developed that facilitate the study and treatment of oxidative stress and oxidative stressed-induced disease.