TGF-beta Superfamily Modulators
TGF-beta, the prototypical member of the TGF-beta superfamily, acts as a potent growth inhibitor or stimulator of apoptosis in many cell types. The downstream signaling initiated by TGF-beta binding to its serine/threonine kinase receptor is carried out by members of the Smad family. In general, activation of Smad2 or Smad3 results in the formation of a heteromeric complex with Smad4 that translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. R&D Systems offers a range of quality products that have been shown to modulate TGF-beta / Smad signaling cascades.