Tocris Small Molecules for Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Research
At low levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) exert important physiological actions. For example, ROS and RNS are generated by macrophages and neutrophils in response to infectious agents, they act as second messengers to regulate vascular tone, and they can promote cell survival and proliferation. However, in excess, ROS and RNS are capable of damaging proteins, lipids, and DNA, and can induce apoptosis. Preventing ROS and RNS-induced apoptosis requires their levels to be tightly regulated. An excess of ROS and RNS, referred to as oxidative stress, has been implicated in a number of human conditions including atherosclerosis, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Small molecule oxidants, antioxidants, and modulators of enzymes that produce ROS and RNS provide researchers with the ability to either induce, suppress or to define the mediators of the oxidative stress.