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Ubiquitin-related Molecules in the Akt Pathway

Ubiquitination refers to the covalent addition of one or multiple Ubiquitin molecules to a target protein via the coordinated actions of Ubiquitin-activating (E1) enzymes, Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes, and Ubiquitin ligases (E3s). The molecules listed below are involved in the ubiquitination process and have been reported to affect or be affected by Akt signaling. The Akt pathway is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, proliferation, autophagy, and metabolism, and is often altered in cancer. Akt is ubiquitinated and deubiquitinated by TRAF-6 and CYLD, respectively, and this ubiquitination appears to be required for the membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Furthermore, Akt activates MDM2/HDM2, which ubiquitinates and promotes the degradation of the tumor suppressor p53 via the 26S Proteasome.