Caspase-4 Inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK

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Citations (25)

Caspase-4 Inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK Summary

Cell permeable fluoromethyl ketone (FMK)-derivatized peptides act as effective irreversible Caspase inhibitors with no cytotoxic effects and, therefore, are useful tools for studying Caspase activity.


Shipping Conditions
The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at -20 to -70 °C. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Do not use past expiration date.

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Background: Caspase-4

Caspases are a family of cytosolic aspartate-specific cysteine proteases involved in the initiation and execution of apoptosis. They are expressed as latent zymogens and are activated by an autoproteolytic mechanism or by processing by other proteases (frequently other caspases). Human caspases can be subdivided into three functional groups: cytokine activation (caspase-1, -4, -5, and -13), apoptosis initiation (caspase-2, -8, -9, -and -10), and apoptosis execution (caspase-3, -6, and -7).

Caspases are regulated by a variety of stimili, including APAF1, CFLAR/FLIP, NOL3/ARC, and members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family such as BIRC1/NAIP, BIRC2/cIAP-1, BIRC3/cIAP-2, BIRC4/XIAP, BIRC5/Survivin, and BIRC7/Livin. IAP activity is modulated by DIABLO/SMAC or PRSS25/HTRA2/Omi. Cell-permeable and irreversible peptide inhibitors are also available for different caspases.

Entrez Gene IDs
837 (Human)
Alternate Names
apoptotic cysteine protease Mih1/TX; CASP4; CASP-4; caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase; caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine protease; Caspase4; Caspase-4; EC 3.4.22; EC; ICE(rel)II; ICE(rel)-II; ICEREL-II; ICH2; ICH-2; Mih1/TX; Protease ICH-2; Protease TX; TX

Citations for Caspase-4 Inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

25 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Bexarotene-induced cell death in ovarian cancer cells through Caspase-4-gasdermin E mediated pyroptosis
    Authors: T Kobayashi, A Mitsuhashi, P Hongying, M Shioya, K Kojima, K Nishikimi, K Yahiro, M Shozu
    Scientific Reports, 2022;12(1):11123.  2022
  2. Caspase Activation and Caspase-Mediated Cleavage of APP Is Associated with Amyloid beta-Protein-Induced Synapse Loss in Alzheimer's Disease
    Authors: G Park, HS Nhan, SH Tyan, Y Kawakatsu, C Zhang, M Navarro, EH Koo
    Cell Rep, 2020;31(13):107839.  2020
  3. Clustering of Tir during enteropathogenic E. coli infection triggers calcium influx-dependent pyroptosis in intestinal epithelial cells
    Authors: Q Zhong, TI Roumelioti, Z Kozik, M Cepeda-Mol, LÁ Fernández, AR Shenoy, C Bakal, G Frankel, JS Choudhary
    PloS Biology, 2020;18(12):e3000986.  2020
  4. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa protease LasB directly activates IL-1&beta
    Authors: J Sun, DL LaRock, EA Skowronski, JM Kimmey, J Olson, Z Jiang, AJ O'Donoghue, V Nizet, CN LaRock
    EBioMedicine, 2020;60(0):102984.  2020
  5. PLOD3 suppression exerts an anti-tumor effect on human lung cancer cells by modulating the PKC-delta signaling pathway
    Authors: JH Baek, HS Yun, GT Kwon, J Lee, JY Kim, Y Jo, JM Cho, CW Lee, JY Song, J Ahn, JS Kim, EH Kim, SG Hwang
    Cell Death Dis, 2019;10(3):156.  2019
  6. Corticosterone Preexposure Increases NF-?B Translocation and Sensitizes IL-1? Responses in BV2 Microglia-Like Cells
    Authors: J Liu, S Mustafa, DT Barratt, MR Hutchinson
    Front Immunol, 2018;9(0):3.  2018
  7. Combination therapy with proteasome inhibitors and TLR agonists enhances tumour cell death and IL-1? production
    Authors: AC Tang, SM Rahavi, SY Fung, HY Lu, H Yang, CJ Lim, GS Reid, SE Turvey
    Cell Death Dis, 2018;9(2):162.  2018
  8. NLR members NLRC4 and NLRP3 mediate sterile inflammasome activation in microglia and astrocytes
    Authors: L Freeman, H Guo, CN David, WJ Brickey, S Jha, JP Ting
    J. Exp. Med., 2017;0(0):.  2017
  9. Processing and secretion of guanylate binding protein-1 depend on inflammatory caspase activity
    Authors: E Naschberge, W Gei beta dörfer, C Bogdan, P Tripal, E Kremmer, M Stürzl, N Britzen-La
    J. Cell. Mol. Med, 2017;0(0):.  2017
  10. Production and regulation of interleukin-1 family cytokines at the materno-fetal interface
    Authors: LM Scott, AH Bryant, A Rees, B Down, RH Jones, CA Thornton
    Cytokine, 2017;0(0):.  2017
  11. Human Scavenger Receptor A1-Mediated Inflammatory Response to Silica Particle Exposure Is Size Specific
    Authors: N Nishijima, T Hirai, K Misato, M Aoyama, E Kuroda, KJ Ishii, K Higashisak, Y Yoshioka, Y Tsutsumi
    Front Immunol, 2017;8(0):379.  2017
  12. IL-1? is an innate immune sensor of microbial proteolysis
    Authors: CN LaRock, J Todd, DL LaRock, J Olson, AJ O'Donoghue, AA Robertson, MA Cooper, HM Hoffman, V Nizet
    Sci Immunol, 2016;1(2):.  2016
  13. Growth inhibition of cytosolic Salmonella by caspase-1 and caspase-11 precedes host cell death
    Nat Commun, 2016;7(0):13292.  2016
  14. Pore-Forming Toxins Induce Macrophage Necroptosis during Acute Bacterial Pneumonia.
    Authors: Gonzalez-Juarbe N, Gilley R, Hinojosa C, Bradley K, Kamei A, Gao G, Dube P, Bergman M, Orihuela C
    PLoS Pathog, 2015;11(12):e1005337.  2015
  15. A streptococcal lipid toxin induces membrane permeabilization and pyroptosis leading to fetal injury.
    Authors: Whidbey C, Vornhagen J, Gendrin C, Boldenow E, Samson J, Doering K, Ngo L, Ezekwe E, Gundlach J, Elovitz M, Liggitt D, Duncan J, Adams Waldorf K, Rajagopal L
    EMBO Mol Med, 2015;7(4):488-505.  2015
  16. Source and Purity of Dengue-Viral Preparations Impact Requirement for Enhancing Antibody to Induce Elevated IL-1beta Secretion: A Primary Human Monocyte Model.
    Authors: Callaway J, Smith S, Widman D, McKinnon K, Scholle F, Sempowski G, Dittmer D, Crowe J, de Silva A, Ting J
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0136708.  2015
  17. Inflammasome activation in response to the Yersinia type III secretion system requires hyperinjection of translocon proteins YopB and YopD.
    Authors: Zwack E, Snyder A, Wynosky-Dolfi M, Ruthel G, Philip N, Marketon M, Francis M, Bliska J, Brodsky I
    MBio, 2015;6(1):e02095-14.  2015
  18. Extracorporeal photopheresis promotes IL-1beta production.
    Authors: Yakut E, Jakobs C, Peric A, Michel G, Baal N, Bein G, Brune B, Hornung V, Hackstein H
    J Immunol, 2015;194(6):2569-77.  2015
  19. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) Mediates IL-1beta Induction by Primary Human Monocytes during Antibody-enhanced Dengue Virus Infection.
    Authors: Callaway J, Smith S, McKinnon K, de Silva A, Crowe J, Ting J
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(28):17306-20.  2015
  20. BRAF- and MEK-Targeted Small Molecule Inhibitors Exert Enhanced Antimelanoma Effects in Combination With Oncolytic Reovirus Through ER Stress.
    Authors: Roulstone V, Pedersen M, Kyula J, Mansfield D, Khan A, McEntee G, Wilkinson M, Karapanagiotou E, Coffey M, Marais R, Jebar A, Errington-Mais F, Melcher A, Vile R, Pandha H, McLaughlin M, Harrington K
    Mol Ther, 2015;23(5):931-42.  2015
  21. The cleavage pattern of TDP-43 determines its rate of clearance and cytotoxicity.
    Authors: Li Q, Yokoshi M, Okada H, Kawahara Y
    Nat Commun, 2015;6(0):6183.  2015
  22. Late endosomal trafficking of alternative serotype adenovirus vaccine vectors augments antiviral innate immunity.
    Authors: Teigler J, Kagan J, Barouch D
    J Virol, 2014;88(18):10354-63.  2014
  23. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress induction by the plant toxin, persin, in overcoming resistance to the apoptotic effects of tamoxifen in human breast cancer cells.
    Authors: McCloy R, Shelley E, Roberts C, Boslem E, Biden T, Nicholson R, Gee J, Sutherland R, Musgrove E, Burgess A, Butt A
    Br J Cancer, 2013;109(12):3034-41.  2013
  24. Increased sensitivity of early apoptotic cells to complement-mediated lysis.
    Authors: Attali G, Gancz D, Fishelson Z
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2004;34(11):3236-45.  2004
  25. Cytotoxicity and interleukin-1beta processing following Shigella flexneri infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
    Authors: Edgeworth JD, Spencer J, Phalipon A, Griffin GE, Sansonetti PJ
    Eur. J. Immunol., 2002;32(5):1464-71.  2002


  1. Does R&D Systems offer a negative control for Caspase Inihibitors with benzyloxycarbonyl group (Z-) at the N-terminus and the FMK functional group at the C-terminus?

    • Yes, R&D Systems offers Caspase Inhibitor Control Z-FA-FMK, Catalog # FMKC01, which is an inhibitor of cathepsins B and L but not caspases, and has been used in several systems as a negative control for peptide inhibitors of caspases.

  2. Are R&D Systems Caspase Inhibitors irreversible?

    • Yes, the majority of R&D Systems Caspase Inhibitors have a Fluoromethyl ketone (FMK) functional group on the C-terminus of the peptide, and act as effective irreversible inhibitors with no added cytotoxic effects. Inhibitors synthesized with a benzyloxycarbonyl group (also known as BOC or Z) at the N-terminus and O-methyl side chains exhibit enhanced cellular permeability.

      R&D Systems also offers a General Caspase Inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh, Catalog # OPH001, as well as a FITC-conjugated pan-caspase inhibitor (ApoStat), Catalog # FMK012, which are both cell-permeable, irreversible inhibitors of caspase activity.

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