Human 4-1BB Ligand/TNFSF9 Alexa Fluor® 405-conjugated Antibody Summary
Accession # P41273.1
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
Background: 4-1BB Ligand/TNFSF9
4-1BB Ligand (4-1BBL; also CD137L) is a 32 kDa type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) molecules (1‑4). The human 4-1BBL cDNA encodes a 254 amino acid (aa) protein that contains a 25 aa N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a 23 aa transmembrane segment, and a 206 aa C-terminal extracellular region (5). The extracellular domain (ECD) of 4-1BBL has a jelly-roll, beta -sandwich tertiary structure that is similar to other TNFSF members. There is only one cysteine in the human ECD, and no potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The potential exists, however, for O-linked glycosylation. The human 4-1BBL ECD shares 32% and 35% aa identity with mouse and rat ECD, respectively. In the cytoplasmic domain, human 4-1BBL is 55 aa shorter than the equivalent region in rodents. 4-1BBL is expressed by activated B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, activated T cells, neurons and astrocytes (2, 3, 6). A bioactive 26 kDa soluble form of 4-1BBL, presumably generated by MMP cleavage, occurs in humans (4). Human 4-1BBL signals through both CD137/4-1BB and itself. Its cytoplasmic tail participates in reverse signaling that induces apoptosis in T cells and cytokine secretion (IL-6; TNF-alpha ) by monocytes (7, 8). 4-1BBL binding to CD137/4-1BB produces a number of effects. It seems to play a key role in the T cell recall response. It maintains T cell numbers at the end of a primary response, and induces CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate and secrete cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-gamma in CD4+ cells, and IFN-gamma in CD8+ cells (9, 10).
- Kwon, B. et al. (2003) Exp. Mol. Med. 35:8.
- Salih, H.R. et al. (2002) Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 40:348.
- Vinay, D.S. and B.S. Kwon (1998) Semin. Immunol. 1:481.
- Salih, H.R. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:4059.
- Alderson, M.R. et al. (1994) Eur. J. Immunol. 24:2219.
- Reali, C. et al. (2003) J. Neurosci. Res. 74:67.
- Michel, J. et al. (1999) Immunology 98:42.
- Langstein, J. et al. (1998) J. Immunol. 160:2488.
- Wen, T. et al. (2002) J. Immunol. 168:4897.
- Dawicki, W. and T.H. Watts (2004) Eur. J. Immunol. 34:743.
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