Measured by its ability to neutralize FGF-21-induced proliferation in BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human FGF-RIIIc. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.5-3 μg/mL in the presence of Recombinant Mouse Klotho beta.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by FGF-21 and Neutralization by Human FGF-21 Antibody.
In the presence of Recombinant Mouse Klotho beta (Catalog # 2619-KB), Recombinant Human FGF-21 (Catalog # 2539-FG) stimulates proliferation in the BaF3 mouse pro-B cell line transfected with human FGF-RIIIc in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Under these conditions, proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human FGF-21 (500 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human FGF-21 Mononclonal Antibody (MAB25373). The ND50 is typically 0.5-3 μg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitue at 0.5mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a member of the FGF gene family, which currently contains 22 human members. Based on its structure, it is further classified as an FGF19 subfamily member. This subfamily includes FGF-19, -21, and -23. Like all other FGF subfamilies, FGF-19 subfamily members contain a 120 amino acid (aa) core FGF domain that exhibits a beta -trefoil structure (1, 2). Unlike other FGF subfamilies, FGF-19 subfamily members apparently exhibit poor binding to ECM, resulting in highly diffusible molecules (3). The c-DNA for FGF-21 predicts a 209 aa polypeptide that contains a 28 aa signal sequence and a 181 aa mature region (4). Notably, FGF-21, as well as FGF-19 show limited binding to heparin (4). One potential alternate splice form has been reported. It shows a 43 aa substitution for the C-terminal 12 aa of the standard form (5). Mature human FGF-21 shows 81% aa identity to mouse FGF-21, and is known to be active on mouse cells (4, 6). The FGF-19 subfamily is considered endocrine in nature. All three subfamily members impact some aspect of metabolism, all three are induced by a nuclear receptor heterodimer that includes RXR, and all three utilize Klotho family members for signal transduction (7, 8, 9). FGF-21 is produced by hepatocytes in response to free fatty acid (FFA) stimulation of a PPARa/RXR dimeric complex (3, 7, 10, 11). This situation occurs clinically during starvation, or following the ingestion of a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. Upon FGF-21 secretion, white adipose tissue is induced to release FFAs from triglyceride stores. Once FFAs reach hepatocytes, they are oxidized and reduced to acetyl-CoA. The acetyl-CoA is recombined into 4-carbon ketone bodies (acetoacetate and beta -hydroxybutyrate), released, and transported to peripheral tissues for TCA processing and energy generation (11, 12).
Itoh, N. and D.M. Ornitz (2004) Trends Genet. 20:563.
Mohammadi, M. et al. (2005) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16:107.
Huang, X. et al. (2006) Mol. Carcinog. 45:934.
Nishimura, T. et al. (2000) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1492:203.
GenBank Accession #: EAW52401 (2006).
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Moore, D. D. (2007) Science 316:1436.
Ogawa, Y. et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:7432.
Kurosu, H. et. al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:26687.
Lundasen, T. et al. (2007) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 360:437.
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