Human Flt-3 Ligand/FLT3L (NP_001450.2) VersaClone cDNA Summary
Background: Flt-3 Ligand/FLT3L
Flt-3 Ligand, also known as FL, is an alpha-helical cytokine that promotes the differentiation of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Mature human Flt-3 Ligand consists of a 158 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD) with a cytokine-like domain and a juxtamembrane tether region, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 30 aa cytoplasmic tail. Within the ECD, human Flt-3 Ligand shares 71% and 65% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat Flt-3 Ligand, respectively. Human and mouse Flt-3 Ligand show cross-species activity. Flt-3 Ligand is expressed as a noncovalently-linked dimer by T cells and bone marrow and thymic fibroblasts. Each 36 kDa chain carries approximately 12 kDa of N- and O-linked carbohydrates. Alternate splicing and proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane form can generate a soluble 30 kDa fragment that includes the cytokine domain. Alternate splicing of human Flt-3 Ligand also generates membrane-associated isoforms that contain either a truncated cytoplasmic tail or an 85 aa substitution following the cytokine domain. Both transmembrane and soluble Flt-3 Ligand signal through the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt-3/Flk-2. Flt-3 Ligand induces the expansion of monocytes and immature dendritic cells as well as early B cell lineage differentiation. It synergizes with IL-3, GM-CSF, and SCF to promote the mobilization and myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. It cooperates with IL-2, -6, -7, and -15 to induce NK cell development and with IL-3, -7, and -11 to induce terminal B cell maturation. Animal studies also show Flt-3 Ligand to reduce the severity of experimentally induced allergic inflammation.
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