|TAFA1/FAM19A1 in Human Brain. TAFA1/FAM19A1 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human brain (cortex) using Goat Anti-Human TAFA1/FAM19A1 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF5154) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling when primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
TAFA1 (also FAM19A1) is a secreted, 13 kDa member of the FAM19/TAFA family of chemokine-like proteins (1). It is synthesized as a 133 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 19 aa signal sequence and a 114 aa mature chain. Like other members of the FAM19/TAFA family, mature TAFA1 contains 10 regularly spaced cysteine residues that follow the pattern CX7CCX13CXCX14CX11CX4CX5CX10C, in which C represents a conserved cysteine residue and X represents a noncysteine amino acid (1). Human TAFA1 is 100% aa identical to mouse TAFA1. TAFA1 is expressed exclusively in the brain, with highest expression in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, parietal cortex and medulla, and low levels in the basal ganglion, thalamus, and cerebellum (1). The biological functions of TAFA family members remain to be determined, but there are a few tentative hypotheses. First, TAFAs may modulate immune responses in the CNS by functioning as brain-specific chemokines, and may act with other chemokines to optimize the recruitment and activity of immune cells in the CNS (1). Second, TAFAs may represent a novel class of neurokines that act as regulators of immune nervous cells (1, 2). And third, TAFAs may control axonal sprouting following brain injury (1).
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