Hyaluronan (High MW)

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Product Details
Citations (10)
Reviews (1)

Hyaluronan (High MW) Summary

Product Specifications

S. pyogenes fermentation-derived
Predicted Molecular Mass
>950 kDa
1350 kDa

Product Datasheets

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Formulation White to off-white odorless powder
Reconstitution Hyaluronan can be reconstituted in aqueous solutions.
Shipping The product is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Store the unopened product at -20 to -70 °C. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
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Background: Hyaluronan

Hyaluronan (HA), also known as hyaluronic acid or sodium hyaluronate, is a naturally occurring linear polymer of the repeating disaccharide structure: D-glucuronic acid-beta-1, 3-N-acetylglucosamine-beta-1,4 (1 - 3). It is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) that is ubiquitously present in the extracellular matrix of all vertebrates and is also present in the capsule of some strains of Streptococci. Unlike other GAGs such as chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparin sulfate, HA lacks sulfate groups. Except for the covalent binding with the heavy chain of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (2), HA is not covalently associated with other proteins. Mammalian HA is synthesized by one of three distinct HA synthases (HAS1, 2, and 3), which are plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains (1 - 4). As UDP-sugar substrates are added, the growing HA polymer continuously translocates across the membrane to the extracellular surface. The three HA synthases differ in their rates of synthesis and produce HA polymers with different chain lengths. Whereas HAS-2 produces high molecular weight (HMW) HA with an average mass of greater than 2000 kDa, HAS-1 and HAS-3 produce HA with a size distribution of 200 - 2000 kDa (4). HA is important for the maintenance of a highly hydrated extracellular matrix in tissues, which is involved in cell adhesion and supports cell migration. HA also exhibits diverse biological functions by interacting with a large number of hyaluronan-binding proteins and cell surface receptors (CD44, LYVE-1) (5). HA biological functions differ depending on the size of HA (3 - 7). Whereas HMW HA (> 500 kDa) is anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, low molecular weight (LMW) HA (10 - 500 kDa) is highly angiogenic and pro-inflammatory. HA oligomers are anti-apoptotic and upregulate heat shock protein expression. HA turns over rapidly in mammals, via the concerted actions of a family of at least 5 hyaluronidases (8).

  1. Weigel, P.H. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:13997.
  2. Bost, F. et al. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 252:339.
  3. Stern, R. (2004) Eur. J. Cell Biol. 83:317.
  4. Itano, N. and K. Kimata (2002) IUBMB Life 54:195.
  5. Day, A.J. http://www.glycoforum.gr.jp/science/hyaluronan/HA16/HA16E.html.
  6. Powell, J.D. and M.R. Horton (2005) Immunol. Res. 32:207.
  7. Csoka, A.B. et al. (2001) Matrix Biol. 20:499.
  8. Turley, E.A. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:4589.
Alternate Names

Citations for Hyaluronan (High MW)

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

10 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. HAPLN1 potentiates peritoneal metastasis in pancreatic cancer
    Authors: L Wiedmann, F De Angelis, N Vaquero-Si, E Donato, E Espinet, I Moll, E Alsina-San, H Bohnenberg, E Fernandez-, R Mülfarth, M Vacca, J Gerwing, LC Conradi, P Ströbel, A Trumpp, C Mogler, A Fischer, J Rodriguez-
    Nature Communications, 2023-04-24;14(1):2353.
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. 4-methylumbelliferone inhibits clonogenic potency by suppressing high molecular weight-hyaluronan in fibrosarcoma cells
    Authors: K Hasegawa, R Saga, R Takahashi, R Fukui, M Chiba, K Okumura, E Tsuruga, Y Hosokawa
    Oncol Lett, 2020-02-05;19(4):2801-2808.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. The material properties of naked mole-rat hyaluronan
    Authors: Y Kulaberogl, B Bhushan, F Hadi, S Chakrabart, WT Khaled, KS Rankin, ESJ Smith, D Frankel
    Sci Rep, 2019-04-29;9(1):6632.
    Species: Bacteria - Streptococcus pyogenes
    Sample Types:
  4. Modulation of hyaluronan polymer size regulates proliferation of perimysial fibroblasts in thyroid eye disease
    Authors: R Ma, Q Li, Z Wang, Y Yuan, L Gan, J Qian
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2018-02-05;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Role of CD44 in Regulating TLR2 Activation of Human Macrophages and Downstream Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines
    Authors: M Qadri, S Almadani, GD Jay, KA Elsaid
    J. Immunol., 2017-12-01;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Type III TGFbeta receptor and Src direct hyaluronan-mediated invasive cell motility.
    Authors: Allison P, Espiritu D, Barnett J, Camenisch T
    Cell Signal, 2014-12-11;27(3):453-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis protects against central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity and increases CXCL12 expression in the inflamed CNS.
    Authors: Mueller A, Yoon B, Sadiq S
    J Biol Chem, 2014-06-27;289(33):22888-99.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
  8. Crucial role of hyaluronan in neointimal formation after vascular injury.
    Authors: Kashima Y, Takahashi M, Shiba Y, Itano N, Izawa A, Koyama J, Nakayama J, Taniguchi S, Kimata K, Ikeda U
    PLoS ONE, 2013-03-06;8(3):e58760.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Heterodimeric integrin complexes containing beta1-integrin promote internalization and lethality of anthrax toxin.
    Authors: Martchenko M, Jeong SY, Cohen SN
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010-08-16;107(35):15583-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Identification of a novel chondroitin hydrolase in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    Authors: Kaneiwa T, Yamada S, Mizumoto S, Montano AM, Mitani S, Sugahara K
    J. Biol. Chem., 2008-04-04;283(22):14971-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein


  1. What is the highest concentration that Catalog #GLR002, Hyaluronan (High MW), can be reconstituted to?

    • Hyaluronan (High MW) wil take some time to go into solution as it is a high MW polymer. A 1% solution can go into solution after about 24 hours of gentle rocking at room temperature followed by light vortexing if needed. More concentrated solutions may take longer to prepare. A 6% solution may take up to one week to fully solubilize.

  2. Does R&D Systems® hyaluronan contain any chondroitin sulfate?

    • No, the hyaluronan is produced by microbial fermentation of Streptococcus pyogenes, which does not make chondroitin sulfate.

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Hyaluronan (High MW)
By Timothy Audam on 10/20/2020

LPS free HA for a confident experiment--particularly when treating immune cells.