Mouse Dkk-2 Antibody

(2 citations)
(1 Review)
  
  • Species Reactivity
    Mouse
  • Specificity
    Detects mouse Dkk‑2 in Western blots.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant mouse Dkk-2
    Ser26-Ile259
    Accession # Q9QYZ8
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Mouse Dkk‑2
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunohistochemistry
Dkk‑2 in Mouse Embryo. Dkk‑2 was detected in immersion fixed frozen sections of mouse embryo (15 d.p.c.) using 15 µg/mL Mouse Dkk‑2 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2435) overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Dkk-2

Dickkopf related protein 2 (Dkk-2) is a member of the Dickkopf family of secreted Wnt modulators (1-3). Dkk proteins contain a signal peptide and two conserved cysteine-rich domains that are separated by a linker region. The second cysteine-rich domain, which shows a configuration of cysteines conserved in prokineticin and colipase families, mediates Dkk-2 binding activities (2-4). The 226 amino acid (aa), ~35 kDa mature mouse Dkk-2 shares 41% and 34% aa identity with mouse Dkk-1 and Dkk-4, respectively. It also shares 99%, 96%, 96%, 96% and 94% aa identity with rat, human, canine, equine and bovine Dkk-2, respectively, and can activate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in Xenopus embryos (5). Dkk proteins modify Wnt engagement of a receptor complex composed of a Frizzled protein and a low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, either LRP5 or LRP6 (3). When LRP6 is overexpressed, direct high-affinity binding of Dkk-2 to LRP can enhance canonical Wnt signaling (6-8). However, when Dkk-2 and LRP6 form a ternary complex with Kremen2, Wnt signaling is inhibited due to internalization of Dkk-2/LRP6/Krm2 complexes (9, 10). Thus, depending on the cellular context, Dkk-2 can either activate or inhibit canonical Wnt signaling (3). In contrast, binding of Dkk-1 or Dkk-4 to LRP is consistently antagonistic (3). Dkk proteins are expressed in mesenchymal tissues and control epithelial transformations. Dkk-2 expression has been studied most in bone and eye. Mouse Dkk-1 or Dkk-2 deficiencies have opposite effects on bone homeostasis, despite downregulating Wnt antagonism in both cases (11, 12). Dkk-2 expression is induced by Wnts in bone, and is thought to enhance bone density by promoting terminal differentiation of osteoblasts and mineral deposition (11). In contrast, Dkk-1 negatively regulates late osteoblast proliferation, which limits bone density (12). Dkk-2-deficient mice are blind due to faulty differentiation of corneal epithelium (13).

  • References:
    1. Monaghan, A.P. et al. (1999) Mech. Dev. 87:45.
    2. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
    3. Niehrs, C. (2006) Oncogene 25:7469.
    4. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
    5. Wu, W. et al. (2000) Current Biol. 10:1611.
    6. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
    7. Li, L. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277:5977.
    8. Brott, B. and S.Y. Sokol (2002) Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:6100.
    9. Mao, B. et al. (2002) Nature 417:664.
    10. Mao, B. and C. Niehrs (2003) Gene 302:179.
    11. Li, X. et al. (2005) Nat. Genet. 37:945.
    12. Morvan, F. et al. (2006) J. Bone Miner. Res. 21:934.
    13. Mukhopadhyay, M. et al. (2006) Development 133:2149.
  • Long Name:
    Dickkopf-2
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    27123 (Human); 56811 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 2; dickkopf 2; dickkopf homolog 2 (Xenopus laevis); dickkopf related protein-2; dickkopf-2; dickkopf-related protein 2; Dkk2; Dkk-2; hDkk-2
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

2 Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. The effects of Dickkopf-4 on the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of osteoblasts.
    Authors: Hiramitsu S, Terauchi M, Kubota T
    Endocrinology, 2013;154(12):4618-26.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. Genomics identifies medulloblastoma subgroups that are enriched for specific genetic alterations.
    Authors: Thompson MC, Fuller C, Hogg TL, Dalton J, Finkelstein D, Lau CC, Chintagumpala M, Adesina A, Ashley DM, Kellie SJ, Taylor MD, Curran T, Gajjar A, Gilbertson RJ
    J. Clin. Oncol., 2006;24(12):1924-31.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC
Cell and Tissue Staining Kits
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Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit

CTS008 13
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Immunohistochemistry Reagents
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

CTS015 10
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic

CTS013 4
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Mounting Medium

CTS011 4
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent Sampler (50 mL each)

CTS016
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Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

CTS014
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NorthernLights Guard Mounting Media

NL996
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Acidic

VCTS022
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Universal

VCTS023
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VisUCyte Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic

VCTS021
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Isotype Controls
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Normal Goat IgG Control

Ctrl AB-108-C 191  
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Secondary Antibodies
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB, Simple Western HAF109 19  
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Goat IgG HRP-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF017 15  
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Goat IgG (H+L) PE-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0107 4  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL557-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL001 9
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL493-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL003 5
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Goat IgG (H+L) APC-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0108 6  
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Goat IgG Horseradish Peroxidase-conjugated Antibody

WB HAF019 6  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Antibody

WB AF109 6
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF109 3
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Goat IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer

IHC VC004  
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Goat IgG (H+L) Fluorescein-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0109 2  
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG NorthernLights™ NL637-conjugated Antibody

Flow, IHC, ICC NL002
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF017
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Rabbit Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) Affinity Purified PAb, X Absorbed

WB, ELISA R-401-C-ABS
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Chicken Anti-Goat IgG Biotinylated Antibody

WB BAF019
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Donkey Anti-Goat IgG (H+L) PerCP-conjugated Antibody

Flow F0124
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Average Rating: 5 (Based on 1 review)

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We have 1 review tested in 1 application: Western Blot.

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Images Ratings Applications Species Reviewed By Date Details
Western Blot Mouse Dkk-2 Antibody AF2435
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 WB Mouse Anonymous 03/14/2017
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Western Blot Mouse Dkk-2 Antibody AF2435
Western Blot: Mouse Dkk-2 Antibody [AF2435]

Summary

ApplicationWestern Blot
Sample TestedLung tissue
SpeciesMouse

Other Experimental Details

Other Experimental DetailsMouse lung lysate probed with 1:1,000 DKK-2 Antibody showing two bands corresponding to fragments 60 kDa and 28 kDa. Buffer: 5% BSA in PBS. Secondary Ab: anti-Goat IgG 1:5,000.

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