Mouse GDF-9 Antibody Summary
Accession # Q07105
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Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Growth Inhibition Induced by GDF‑9 and Neutralization by Mouse GDF‑9 Antibody. Recombinant Mouse GDF-9 (Catalog # 739-G9) induces growth inhibition in the Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cell line in the presence of in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by Resazurin (Catalog # AR002). Growth Inhibition elicited by Recombinant Mouse GDF-9 (0.5 µg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat Anti-Mouse GDF-9 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB739). The ND50 is typically 0.4-2.4 µg/mL.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily, and is an oocyte secreted paracrine factor essential for mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis (1‑2). Mouse GDF-9 is synthesized as a 441 amino acid (aa) prepropeptide that contains a 29 aa signal sequence, a 277 aa propeptide, and a 135 aa mature chain. Residues 340‑441 constitute a TGF-beta like domain. In addition, there is one potential site of N-linked glycosylation in the mature chain. Unlike other members of the TGF-beta superfamily, GDF-9 lacks the conserved cysteine residue that is believed to form the sole disulfide linkage between subunits in other family members (3). Mature mouse GDF-9 shares 90% aa sequence identity with mature human GDF 9. The protein is expressed throughout the development of the maturing follicle (2). GDF-9 functions as a paracrine factor in the regulation of granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation, and is essential for fertility (2, 4). Studies on GDF-9 null mice have demonstrated arrested follicular development at the primary follicle stage (5). Mouse GDF-9 induces Smad2 phosphorylation and inhibin production in rat diethylstilbestrol treated granulosa cells (6) and in human granulosa-luteal cells (7). The downstream signaling actions of GDF 9 are mediated by the type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5), initiating the subsequent activation of Smad2 and Smad3 (2, 8). GDF 9 uses the BMP type II receptor (BMPRII) as its other signaling receptor (2, 9).
- McGrath, S.A. et al. (1995) Mol. Endocrinol. 9:131.
- Mottershead, D.G. et al. (2008) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 283:58.
- McPherron, A.C. and S.-J. Lee (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 268:3444.
- Gilchrist, R.B. et al. (2006) J. Cell. Sci. 119:3811.
- Dong, J. et al. (1996) Nature 383:531.
- Roh, J.S. et al. (2003) Endocrinology 144:172.
- Kaivo-Oja, N. et al. (2003) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:755.
- Mazerbourg, S. et al. (2004) Mol. Endocrinol. 18:653.
- Vitt, U.A. et al. (2002) Biol. Reprod. 67:473.
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