|IL‑28B/IFN‑ lambda 3 Inhibition of EMCV-induced Cytopathy and Neutralization by Mouse IL‑28B/IFN‑ lambda 3 Antibody. Recombinant Mouse IL‑28B/IFN‑ lambda 3 (Catalog # 1789‑ML) reduces the Encephalomyocarditis Virus (EMCV)-induced cytopathy in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Inhibition of EMCV activity elicited by Recombinant Mouse IL‑28B/IFN‑ lambda 3 (400 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Rat Anti-Mouse IL‑28B/IFN‑ lambda 3 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB17892). The ND50 is typically 3-9 µg/mL.|
Human IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, also named interferon-lambda 2 (IFN-lambda 2), IFN-lambda 3, and IFN-lambda 1, respectively, are class II cytokine receptor ligands that are distantly related to members of the IL-10 family (11‑13% amino acid (aa) sequence identity) and the type I IFN family (15‑19% aa sequence identity) (1‑3). The genes encoding these three cytokines are localized to chromosome 19 and each is composed of multiple exons. The exon organization of these genes is also found in the IL-10 family genes but is distinct from the type I IFNs, which are encoded within a single exon. The expression of IL-28A, B, and IL-29 is induced by virus infection or double‑stranded RNA. All three cytokines exert bioactivities that overlap those of type I IFNs, including antiviral activity and up‑regulation of MHC class I antigen expression. The three proteins signal through the same heterodimeric receptor complex that is composed of the IL-10 receptor beta (IL-10 R beta ) and a novel IL-28 receptor alpha (IL-28 R alpha, also known as IFN-lambda R1). Ligand binding to the receptor complex induces Jak kinase activation and STAT1 and STAT2 tyrosine phosphorylation. The phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT2 complex with IFN-regulatory factor 9 (IRF-9) to form the IFN-stimulated regulatory factor 3 (ISGF-3) transcription factor complex that is translocated to the nucleus. ISGF-3 binds to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) present in the regulatory regions of the target genes. Mouse IL‑28B cDNA encodes a 193 amino acid residue precursor protein with a putative 15 aa signal peptide. It shares 61%, 62% and 52% aa sequence identity with human IL-28A, human IL-28B and human IL-29, respectively.
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