Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein

Formulations:
Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
102-B2-001
Product Details
Citations (4)
FAQs
Reviews

Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein Summary

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its ability to inhibit the IL-4-dependent proliferation of HT‑2 mouse T cells. Tsang, M. et al. (1995) Cytokine 7:389. The ED50 for this effect is 0.03-0.18 ng/mL.
Source
Porcine platelet-derived TGF-beta 2 protein
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
SDS-PAGE
12 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

102-B2

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 1 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

102-B2/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 10 µg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

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Background: TGF-beta 2

TGF-beta 2 (transforming growth factor beta 2) is one of three closely related mammalian members of the large TGF-beta  superfamily that share a characteristic cysteine knot structure (1 - 7). TGF-beta 1, -2 and -3 are highly pleiotropic cytokines are proposed to act as cellular switches that regulate processes such as immune function, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (1 - 4). Each TGF-beta isoform has some non-redundant functions; for TGF-beta 2, mice with targeted deletion show defects in development of cardiac, lung, craniofacial, limb, eye, ear and urogenital systems (2). Porcine TGF-beta 2 cDNA encodes a 435 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 19 aa signal peptide and a 416 aa proprotein (8). A furin-like convertase processes the proprotein to generate an N-terminal 232 aa latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a C-terminal 112 aa mature TGF-  beta 2 (8, 9). Disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-beta 2 remain non-covalently associated after secretion, forming the small latent TGF-beta 1 complex (8 - 10). Covalent linkage of LAP to one of three latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) creates a large latent complex that may interact with the extracellular matrix (9, 10). TGF-beta is activated from latency by pathways that include actions of the protease plasmin, matrix metalloproteases, thrombospondin 1 and a subset of integrins (10). Mature porcine TGF-beta 2 shows 100% aa identity with human, dog, horse and cow TGF-beta 2, and 97% aa identity with mouse and rat TGF-beta 2. It demonstrates cross-species activity (1). TGF-beta 2 signaling begins with binding to a complex of the accessory receptor betaglycan (also known as TGF-beta  RIII) and a type II ser/thr kinase receptor termed TGF-beta  RII. This receptor then phosphorylates and activates another ser/thr kinase receptor, TGF-beta  RI (also called activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) -5), or alternatively, ALK-1.The whole complex phosphorylates and activates Smad proteins that regulate transcription (3, 11, 12). Use of other signaling pathways that are Smad-independent allows for disparate actions observed in response to TGF-beta in different contexts (11).

References
  1. Sporn, M.B. (2006) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 17:3.
  2. Dunker, N. and K. Krieglstein (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267:6982.
  3. Wahl, S.M. (2006) Immunol. Rev. 213:213.
  4. Chang, H. et al. (2002) Endocr. Rev. 23:787.
  5. Lin, J.S. et al. (2006) Reproduction 132:179.
  6. Hinck, A.P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8517.
  7. Mittl, P.R.E. et al. (1996) Protein Sci. 5:1261.
  8. Cheifetz, S. et al. (1987) Cell 48:409.
  9. Miyazono, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:6407.
  10. Oklu, R. and R. Hesketh (2000) Biochem. J. 352:601.
  11. de Caestecker, M. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:1.
  12. Zuniga, J.E. et al. (2005) J. Mol. Biol. 354:1052.
Long Name
Transforming Growth Factor beta 2
Entrez Gene IDs
7042 (Human); 21808 (Mouse); 397084 (Porcine)
Alternate Names
BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor; cetermin; Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor; G-TSF; MGC116892; polyergin; TGFB2; TGFbeta 2; TGF-beta 2; TGF-beta2; TGF-beta-2; transforming growth factor beta-2; transforming growth factor, beta 2

Citations for Porcine TGF-beta 2 Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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  1. Oral Tolerance Induction to Newly Introduced Allergen is Favored by a Transforming Growth Factor-beta-Enriched Formula
    Authors: S Holvoet, M Perrot, N de Groot, G Prioult, T Mikogami, V Verhasselt, S Nutten
    Nutrients, 2019;11(9):.
    Species: Mink
    Sample Types: Whole Cellks
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 in the development and treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer.
    Authors: Buijs JT, Henriquez NV, van Overveld PG, van der Horst G, Que I, Schwaninger R, Rentsch C, ten Dijke P, Cleton-Jansen AM, Driouch K, Lidereau R, Bachelier R, Vukicevic S, Clezardin P, Papapoulos SE, Cecchini MG, Lowik CW, Van Der Pluijm G
    Cancer Res., 2007;67(18):8742-51.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Smad3 is required for dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium following retinal detachment in mice.
    Authors: Saika S, Kono-Saika S, Tanaka T, Yamanaka O, Ohnishi Y, Sato M, Muragaki Y, Ooshima A, Yoo J, Flanders KC, Roberts AB
    Lab. Invest., 2004;84(10):1245-58.
    Species: Porcine
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Xenopus neurula left-right asymmetry is respeficied by microinjecting TGF-beta5 protein.
    Authors: Mogi K, Goto M, Ohno E, Azumi Y, Takeuchi S, Toyoizumi R
    Int. J. Dev. Biol., 2003;47(1):15-29.
    Species: Xenopus
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo

FAQs

  1. What is the molecular weight of porcine TGF-beta 2 on a Western blot?

    • Under reducing conditions, TGF-beta 2 appears at 12.5 kDa, and under non-reducing conditions at 25 kDa.

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