Recombinant Human Agrin Protein, CF

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
6624-AG-050
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (6)
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Recombinant Human Agrin Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by the ability of the immobilized protein to support the adhesion of U‑87 MG human glioblastoma/astrocytoma cells. The typical ED50 for this effect is 0.9-3.6 μg/mL after 1 hour incubation at 37 °C.

Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.

Source
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line, CHO-derived human Agrin protein
Ala1260-Pro2045, with an N-terminal 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
His
Structure / Form
Monomer
Predicted Molecular Mass
83.5 kDa
SDS-PAGE
100-110 kDa, reducing conditions

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6624-AG

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

6624-AG

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 300 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Agrin

Agrin is a 400‑600 kDa heparan sulfate proteoglycan component of the extracellular matrix. The N-terminal half of human Agrin, which mediates ECM interactions, contains a Laminin-binding NtA domain, nine Kazal-type protease inhibitor domains, two Laminin EGF-like domains, and one SEA domain. The C‑terminal half contains four EGF-like repeats and three Laminin globular G domains. Rat Agrin lacks the NtA domain, and mouse and chick Agrin include the NtA domain only by the use of an alternate promoter. Additional isoforms are generated by alternate splicing at sites Y and Z in the C‑terminal half of rat Agrin (known as A and B, respectively in chick). Agrin isoforms that contain an insert at site Z (Z+ forms) are known as neural Agrin and are selectively produced by motoneurons. Other isoforms are known as muscle Agrin and are additionally expressed in non-neuronal tissues, particularly in basement membranes of the lung and kidney (1-3). This recombinant protein consists of the C‑terminal half of human Agrin corresponding to the Z- isoform of rat Agrin. It shares 60%, 78%, and 80% amino acid sequence identity with comparable regions of chick, mouse, and rat Agrin, respectively. The C‑terminal half of Z- and Z+ Agrin binds to alpha ‑Dystroglycan and mediates adhesion between motoneurons and myotubes at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) (4-6). In contrast, only Z+ Agrin is effective at inducing clustering of the postsynaptic Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) and presynaptic motoneuron differentiation (7, 8). Agrin-induced AChR clustering requires a myotube receptor complex that contains alpha ‑Dystroglycan, MuSK, and LRP4 (4, 9-11). Agrin exhibits many functions in addition to NMJ development. It is enriched in senile Alzheimer's disease plaques where it binds the A beta (1‑40) peptide and promotes amyloid fibril formation (12). It regulates neuronal excitability by binding and inhibiting the alpha 3 subunit of the neuronal Na/K ATPase (13). It functions as an epithelial cell attachment receptor for HIV-1 through interactions with the gp41 coat protein (14). During T cell activation, Agrin contributes to formation of the immunological synapse and regulates the threshold of T cell activation (15).

References
  1. Jury, E.C. and P.S. Kabouridis (2010) Arthritis Res. Ther. 12:205.
  2. Bezakova, G. and M.A. Ruegg (2003) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4:295.
  3. Groffen, A.J.A. et al. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 254:123.
  4. Gee, S.H. et al. (1994) Cell 77:675.
  5. Sugiyama, J. et al. (1994) Neuron 13:103.
  6. Gesemann, M. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273:600.
  7. Burgess, R.W. et al. (1999) Neuron 23:33.
  8. Ferns, M.J. et al. (1993) Neuron 11:491.
  9. Glass, D.J. et al. (1996) Cell 85:513.
  10. Kim, N. et al. (2008) Cell 135:334.
  11. Zhang, B. et al. (2008) Neuron 60:285.
  12. Cotman, S.L. et al. (2000) Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 15:183.
  13. Hilgenberg, L.G.W. et al. (2006) Cell 125:359.
  14. Alfsen, A. et al. (2005) Mol. Biol. Cell 16:4267.
  15. Khan, A.A. et al. (2001) Science 292:1681.
Entrez Gene IDs
375790 (Human); 11603 (Mouse); 25592 (Rat)
Alternate Names
agrin proteoglycan; Agrin; AGRN

Citations for Recombinant Human Agrin Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

6 Citations: Showing 1 - 6
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  1. The Hippo Pathway Effectors YAP/TAZ Are Essential for Mineralized Tissue Homeostasis in the Alveolar Bone/Periodontal Complex
    Authors: M Pandya, G Gopinathan, C Tillberg, J Wang, X Luan, TGH Diekwisch
    Journal of developmental biology, 2022;10(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  2. Human motor units in microfluidic devices are impaired by FUS mutations and improved by HDAC6 inhibition
    Authors: K Stoklund D, EN Krasnow, L Fumagalli, T Vandoorne, P Baatsen, A Kerstens, G Giacomazzi, B Pavie, E Rossaert, J Beckers, M Sampaolesi, P Van Damme, L Van Den Bo
    Stem Cell Reports, 2021;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. iPSC-derived functional human neuromuscular junctions model the pathophysiology of neuromuscular diseases
    Authors: CY Lin, M Yoshida, LT Li, A Ikenaka, S Oshima, K Nakagawa, H Sakurai, E Matsui, T Nakahata, MK Saito
    JCI Insight, 2019;4(18):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Functional brain-specific microvessels from iPSC-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells: the role of matrix composition on monolayer formation
    Authors: ME Katt, RM Linville, LN Mayo, ZS Xu, PC Searson
    Fluids Barriers CNS, 2018;15(1):7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Collagen 18 and agrin are secreted by enteric neural crest cells to remodel their microenvironment and regulate their migration during ENS development
    Authors: N Nagy, C Barad, R Hotta, S Bhave, E Arciero, D Dora, AM Goldstein
    Development, 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Chicken
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. The Different Binding Properties of Cultured Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Subpopulations to Descemet's Membrane Components
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2016;57(11):4599-605.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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