Recombinant Human beta-Defensin 3 Protein, CF Summary
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CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
|Formulation||Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in HCl.|
|Reconstitution||Reconstitute at 500 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.|
|Shipping||The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.|
|Stability & Storage:||Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Background: beta-Defensin 3
beta -Defensin 3, also known as BD3 and DEFB-3, is a membrane-active cationic peptide that functions in inflammation and innate immune responses. There are at least 30 beta-Defensins which are distinguished from alpha-Defensins by the connectivity pattern of their three intramolecular disulfide bonds (1). The 45 amino acid (aa) mature human BD3 shares 38% and 33% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat BD3, respectively (2, 3). It shares 18%-36% aa sequence identity with other human beta-Defensins. BD3 is widely expressed among epithelial tissues, notably by keratinocytes and airway epithelial cells. It is upregulated in response to proinflammatory cytokines, microbial and viral infections, and at the edges of skin wounds (2, 4-6). BD3 induction in osteoarthritis chondrocytes promotes MMP1 and 13 production and inhibits TIMP1 and 2 expression (7). In vivo control of BD3 activity is accomplished in part through cleavage by cathepsins B, L, and S (8). BD3 displays strain specific microbicidal activity toward a broad spectrum of bacteria and yeast (2, 9). BD3 also induces monocyte migration, mast cell activation, and a mast cell-dependent increase in vascular permeability (4, 10). Disruption of the intramolecular disulfide bond pattern in BD3 abrogates its monocyte chemoattractant properties but not its antimicrobial properties (11, 12). BD3 inhibits viral infectivity by interacting directly with HIV-1 plus its coreceptor CXCR4 (5, 13), and with HSV glycoprotein B plus its receptor heparan sulfate (14), and by forming a protective coating on the surface of influenza virus target cells (15).
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- Leikina, E. et al. (2005) Nat. Immunol. 6:995.
Citations for Recombinant Human beta-Defensin 3 Protein, CF
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 2
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Intramuscular vaccination of guinea pigs with the live-attenuated human herpes simplex vaccine VC2 stimulates a transcriptional profile of vaginal Th17 and regulatory Tr1 responses
Authors: BA Stanfield, PJF Rider, J Caskey, F Del Piero, KG Kousoulas
Sample Types: Whole Cells
A novel role for constitutively expressed epithelial-derived chemokines as antibacterial peptides in the intestinal mucosa.
Authors: Kotarsky K, Sitnik KM, Stenstad H, Kotarsky H, Schmidtchen A, Koslowski M, Wehkamp J, Agace WW
Mucosal Immunol, 2010;3(1):40-8.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
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