Recombinant Human Cathepsin S Protein, CF

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R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Recombinant Human Cathepsin S Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its ability to cleave the fluorogenic peptide substrate, Mca-RPKPVE-Nval-WRK(Dnp)-NH2 (Catalog # ES002). The specific activity is >300 pmol/min/µg, as measured under the described conditions.
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human Cathepsin S protein
Gln17-Ile331 (pro) & Ser109-Ile331 (mature), both with a C-terminal 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Gln17 predicted & Ser109
Structure / Form
Pro and mature forms
Predicted Molecular Mass
39 kDa (Pro) and 28 kDa (mature)
37 kDa and 26 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in MES, NaCl and Glycerol.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 6 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after opening.

Assay Procedure

  • Assay Buffer: 50 mM NaOAc, 5 mM DTT, 250 mM NaCl, pH 4.5
  • Recombinant Human Cathepsin S (rhCathepsin S) (Catalog # 1183-CY)
  • Substrate: MCA-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Val-Glu-NVAL-Trp-Arg-Lys(DNP)-NH2 (Catalog # ES002)
  • F16 Black Maxisorp Plate (Nunc, Catalog # 475515)
  • Fluorescent Plate Reader (Model: SpectraMax Gemini EM by Molecular Devices) or equivalent
  1. Dilute rhCathepsin S to 10 µg/mL in Assay Buffer.
  2. Incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
  3. Dilute rhCathepsin S to 0.5 ng/µL in Assay Buffer.
  4. Dilute Substrate to 20 µM in Assay Buffer.
  5. Load 50 µL of the 0.5 ng/µL rhCathepsin S into a black well plate, and start the reaction by adding 50 µL of 20 µM Substrate. Include a Substrate Blank containing 50 µL Assay Buffer and 50 µL of 20 µM Substrate without any rhCathepsin S.
  6. Read at excitation and emission wavelengths of 320 nm and 405 nm (top read), respectively, in kinetic mode for 5 minutes.
  7. Calculate specific activity:

     Specific Activity (pmol/min/µg) =

Adjusted Vmax* (RFU/min) x Conversion Factor** (pmol/RFU)
amount of enzyme (µg)

     *Adjusted for Substrate Blank
     **Derived using calibration standard MCA-Pro-Leu-OH (Bachem, Catalog # M-1975)

Per Well:
  • rhCathepsin S: 0.025 µg
  • Substrate: 10 µM
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Background: Cathepsin S

Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family (1). It plays a major role in the processing of the MHC class II‑associated invariant chain (2). It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and degenerative disorders associated with the cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (1). Human Cathepsin S is synthesized as a preproenzyme of 331 amino acid residues consisting a signal peptide (residues 1‑16), a pro region (residues 17‑114), and the mature enzyme (residues 115‑331) (3‑5). Cathepsin S is less abundant in tissues than Cathepsins B, L and H. The highest levels have been found in lymph nodes, spleen, macrophages and other phagocytic cells.

  1. Kirschke, H. (2004) in Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (ed. Barrett, A.J. et al.) pp. 1104 - 1107, Academic Press, San Diego.
  2. Turk, V. et al. (2001) EMBO J. 20:4629.
  3. Shi, G.P. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:7258.
  4. Shi, G.P. et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269:11530.
  5. Wiederanders, B. et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:13708.
Entrez Gene IDs
1520 (Human)
Alternate Names
Cathepsin S; CTSS; EC 3.4.22; EC; FLJ50259; MGC3886

Citations for Recombinant Human Cathepsin S Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

16 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Cln5 represents a new type of cysteine-based S-depalmitoylase linked to neurodegeneration
    Authors: AV Luebben, D Bender, S Becker, LM Crowther, I Erven, K Hofmann, J Söding, H Klemp, C Bellotti, A Stäuble, T Qiu, RS Kathayat, BC Dickinson, J Gärtner, GM Sheldrick, R Krätzner, R Steinfeld
    Science Advances, 2022-04-15;8(15):eabj8633.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. An Immunosensor for the Determination of Cathepsin S in Blood Plasma by Array SPRi-A Comparison of Analytical Properties of Silver-Gold and Pure Gold Chips
    Authors: P Falkowski, P Mrozek, Z Lukaszewsk, L Oldak, E Gorodkiewi
    Biosensors, 2021-08-27;11(9):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  3. Cathepsin S provokes interleukin-6 (IL-6) trans-signaling through cleavage of the IL-6 receptor in vitro
    Authors: CM Flynn, Y Garbers, S Düsterhöft, R Wichert, J Lokau, CHK Lehmann, D Dudziak, B Schröder, C Becker-Pau, S Rose-John, S Aparicio-S, C Garbers
    Scientific Reports, 2020-12-10;10(1):21612.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Human Cysteine Cathepsins Degrade Immunoglobulin G In Vitro in a Predictable Manner
    Authors: RA Høglund, SB Torsetnes, A Lossius, B Bogen, EJ Homan, R Bremel, T Holmøy
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019-09-29;20(19):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Image-guided surgery using near-infrared Turn-ON fluorescent nanoprobes for precise detection of tumor margins
    Authors: R Blau, Y Epshtein, E Pisarevsky, G Tiram, S Israeli Da, E Yeini, A Krivitsky, A Eldar-Booc, D Ben-Shusha, H Gibori, A Scomparin, O Green, Y Ben-Nun, E Merquiol, H Doron, G Blum, N Erez, R Grossman, Z Ram, D Shabat, R Satchi-Fai
    Theranostics, 2018-05-24;8(13):3437-3460.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Polymer
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Suppression and resolution of autoimmune arthritis by rhesus ?-defensin-1, an immunomodulatory macrocyclic peptide
    Authors: JB Schaal, DQ Tran, A Subramania, R Patel, T Laragione, KD Roberts, K Trinh, P Tongaonkar, PA Tran, D Minond, GB Fields, P Beringer, AJ Ouellette, PS Gulko, ME Selsted
    PLoS ONE, 2017-11-16;12(11):e0187868.
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Dysfunction in diurnal synaptic responses and social behavior abnormalities in cathepsin S-deficient mice
    Authors: F Takayama, X Zhang, Y Hayashi, Z Wu, H Nakanishi
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2017-06-13;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing controls cathepsin S expression in atherosclerosis by enabling HuR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation
    Nat Med, 2016-09-05;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  9. Cathepsin K-mediated Notch1 activation contributes to neovascularization in response to hypoxia.
    Authors: Jiang H, Cheng X, Shi G, Hu L, Inoue A, Yamamura Y, Wu H, Takeshita K, Li X, Huang Z, Song H, Asai M, Hao C, Unno K, Koike T, Oshida Y, Okumura K, Murohara T, Kuzuya M
    Nat Commun, 2014-06-04;5(0):3838.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Fine-tuning nucleophosmin in macrophage differentiation and activation.
    Authors: Guery L, Benikhlef N, Gautier T, Paul C, Jego G, Dufour E, Jacquel A, Cally R, Manoury B, Vanden Berghe T, Vandenabeele P, Droin N, Solary E
    Blood, 2011-08-29;118(17):4694-704.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Enzyme Assay
  11. Regulation of cathepsin g reduces the activation of proinsulin-reactive T cells from type 1 diabetes patients.
    Authors: Zou F, Schafer N, Palesch D, Brucken R, Beck A, Sienczyk M, Kalbacher H, Sun Z, Boehm BO, Burster T
    PLoS ONE, 2011-08-05;6(8):e22815.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Enzyme Assay
  12. A multiplex immunoassay for human adipokine profiling.
    Authors: Schipper HS, De Jager W, van Dijk ME, Meerding J, Zelissen PM, Adan RA, Prakken BJ, Kalkhoven E
    Clin. Chem., 2010-06-08;56(0):1320.
    Applications: ELISA (Standard)
  13. Design of protease-resistant myelin basic protein-derived peptides by cleavage site directed amino acid substitutions.
    Authors: Burster T, Marin-Esteban V, Boehm BO, Dunn S, Rotzschke O, Falk K, Weber E, Verhelst SH, Kalbacher H, Driessen C
    Biochem. Pharmacol., 2007-08-02;74(10):1514-23.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Enzyme Assay
  14. Identification of astrocyte-expressed factors that modulate neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation.
    Authors: Barkho BZ, Song H, Aimone JB
    Stem Cells Dev., 2006-06-01;15(3):407-21.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Cystatin M/E is a high affinity inhibitor of cathepsin V and cathepsin L by a reactive site that is distinct from the legumain-binding site. A novel clue for the role of cystatin M/E in epidermal cornification.
    Authors: Cheng T, Hitomi K, van Vlijmen-Willems IM, de Jongh GJ, Yamamoto K, Nishi K, Watts C, Reinheckel T, Schalkwijk J, Zeeuwen PL
    J. Biol. Chem., 2006-03-24;281(23):15893-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Enzyme Assay
  16. Distinct roles for cysteine cathepsin genes in multistage tumorigenesis.
    Authors: Gocheva V, Zeng W, Ke D, Klimstra D, Reinheckel T, Peters C, Hanahan D, Joyce JA
    Genes Dev., 2006-02-15;20(5):543-56.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Buffer
    Applications: Enzyme Assay


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Recombinant Human Cathepsin S Protein, CF
By Balaji Mahender on 02/05/2018
Application: Immunoassay Standard