Recombinant Human Dkk-3 Protein, CF

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R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (8)
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Recombinant Human Dkk-3 Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its ability to inhibit proliferation of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. Hsieh, S.Y. et al. (2004) Oncogene 23:9183. The ED50 for this effect is 3-12 µg/mL.
Mouse myeloma cell line, NS0-derived human Dkk-3 protein
Ala22-Ile350, with a C-terminal 10-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
37.5 kDa
64-74 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

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Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 250 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: Dkk-3

Dkk-3, also known as REIC (Reduced Expansion in Immortalized Cells), is one of four numbered members of the Dickkopf family of Wnt antagonists (1). Dkk-3 is a secreted monomer expressed in many normal human tissues, most strongly in heart, brain and spinal cord (1, 2), and during early embryonic development in the mouse (3). N-glycosylation at up to four sites preceding or between two conserved cysteine-rich motifs results in expression of a 45 - 65 kDa glycoprotein (1, 4). The cysteine-rich motifs contain 10 cysteines each, with prokineticin and colipase families containing sequences similar to those of the second motif (1, 5). Human Dkk-3 shows 82%, 88%, 85% and 53% amino acid (aa) identity with mouse, bovine, canine and chick Dkk-3, respectively, and 37 - 45% aa identity with other human Dkk family members. Several lines of evidence implicate Dkk-3 as a negative growth regulator. Dkk-3 is downregulated in many tumors as compared to normal cells, sometimes by loss of heterozygosity (4, 6). Downregulation by CpG hypermethylation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is correlated with faster progression and shorter survival (7). Release of cultured cells from serum starvation results in downregulation of Dkk-3 in late G1 phase of the cell cycle (6). Overexpression of Dkk-3 results in tumor cell-line-specific growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice (2, 4, 6). The prototype Dickkopf member, Dkk-1, antagonizes Wnt family signaling by binding to Wnt receptors LRP5 and LRP6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins) and promoting their internalization (1, 9, 10). Results are less straightforward for Dkk-3, where some studies show binding to LRP5/6 while others do not. These effects appear to be dependent on the cells and conditions used (1, 6 - 10).

  1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
  2. Tsuji, T. et al. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 268:20.
  3. Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
  4. Hsieh, S.-Y. et al. (2004) Oncogene 23:9183.
  5. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
  6. Tsuji, T. et al. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 289:257.
  7. Roman-Gomez, J. et al. (2004) Br. J. Cancer 91:707.
  8. Hoang, B.H. et al. (2004) Cancer Res. 64:2734.
  9. Caricasole, A. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:37024.
  10. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
Long Name
Entrez Gene IDs
27122 (Human); 50781 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 3; dickkopf 3; dickkopf homolog 3 (Xenopus laevis); Dickkopf-3; dickkopf-related protein 3; Dkk3; Dkk-3; hDkk-3; regulated in glioma; REIC; REICdkk-3; RIG; RIG-like 5-6; RIG-like 7-1

Citations for Recombinant Human Dkk-3 Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

8 Citations: Showing 1 - 8
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  1. Allosteric inhibition of HTRA1 activity by a conformational lock mechanism to treat age-related macular degeneration
    Authors: S Gerhardy, M Ultsch, W Tang, E Green, JK Holden, W Li, A Estevez, C Arthur, I Tom, A Rohou, D Kirchhofer
    Nature Communications, 2022;13(1):5222.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Combined Serum DKK3 and Circulating CD133 Cells as Prognostic Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer Patients
    Authors: XC Nie, F He, C Lan, JM Niu, P Xia
    OncoTargets and Therapy, 2021;14(0):427-434.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: MTT Assay
  3. Development of a therapeutic anti-HtrA1 antibody and the identification of DKK3 as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in geographic atrophy
    Authors: I Tom, VC Pham, KJ Katschke, W Li, WC Liang, J Gutierrez, A Ah Young, I Figueroa, ST Eshghi, CV Lee, J Kanodia, SJ Snipas, GS Salvesen, P Lai, L Honigberg, M van Looker, D Kirchhofer, A Baruch, JR Lill
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2020;117(18):9952-9963.
    Species: Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus monkey)
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. A novel FOXO1-mediated dedifferentiation blocking role for DKK3 in adrenocortical carcinogenesis
    Authors: JY Cheng, TC Brown, TD Murtha, A Stenman, CC Juhlin, C Larsson, JM Healy, ML Prasad, WT Knoefel, A Krieg, UI Scholl, R Korah, T Carling
    BMC Cancer, 2017;17(1):164.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  5. Conserved Senescence Associated Genes and Pathways in Primary Human Fibroblasts Detected by RNA-Seq
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(5):e0154531.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Phosphatase WIP1 regulates adult neurogenesis and WNT signaling during aging.
    Authors: Zhu, Yunhua, Demidov, Oleg N, Goh, Amanda M, Virshup, David M, Lane, David P, Bulavin, Dmitry V
    J Clin Invest, 2014;124(7):3263-73.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  7. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  8. The Dickkopf-homolog 3 is expressed in tumor endothelial cells and supports capillary formation.
    Authors: Untergasser G, Steurer M, Zimmermann M, Hermann M, Kern J, Amberger A, Gastl G, Gunsilius E
    Int. J. Cancer, 2008;122(7):1539-47.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay


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