Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I Protein, CF

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
1 Image
Product Details
Citations (4)
Supplemental Products

Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I Protein, CF Summary

Product Specifications

>85%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
Endotoxin Level
<1.0 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Measured by its ability to catalyze the formation of S-D-lactoylglutathione from the hemimercaptal adduct that forms spontaneously between methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione. The specific activity is >100 nmol/min/µg, as measured under the described conditions.
E. coli-derived human Glyoxalase I protein
Ala2-Met184, with an N-terminal Met and 6-His tag
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Predicted Molecular Mass
22 kDa
25 kDa, reducing conditions

Product Datasheets

You must select a language.



Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.


Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Tris-HCl and DTT.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile, deionized water.
Shipping The product is shipped with dry ice or equivalent. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 6 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Assay Procedure

  • Assay Buffer: 0.1 M Sodium Phosphate, pH 7.0
  • Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I (rhGlyoxalase I) (Catalog # 4959-GL)
  • Glutathione, Reduced (GSH) (Amresco, Catalog # 0399)
  • Methylglyoxal solution, 40% (Sigma, Catalog # M0252)
  • 96-well Clear UV Plate (Costar, Catalog # 3635)
  • Plate Reader (Model: SpectraMax Plus by Molecular Devices) or equivalent
  1. Prepare 100 mM GSH in deionized water. Note: Prepare fresh.
  2. Dilute 40% (6.48 M) Methylglyoxal solution to 100 mM in Assay Buffer. Note: Prepare fresh.
  3. Combine 1420 µL Assay Buffer, 40 µL 100 mM GSH, and 40 µL 100 mM Methylglyoxal to make the Substrate Mixture.
  4. Incubate at room temperature for 15 minutes.
  5. Dilute rhGlyoxalase I to 0.4 ng/µL in Assay Buffer.
  6. Load 50 µL of 0.4 ng/µL rhGlyoxalase I in a plate, and start the reaction by loading 150 µL of Substrate Mixture. Include a Substrate Blank containing 50 µL of Assay Buffer and 150 µL of Substrate Mixture.
  7. Read at 240 nm (absorbance) in kinetic mode for 5 minutes. Include a 5 second mix before the first read and a 3 second mix between reads.
  8. Calculate specific activity:

     Specific Activity (nmol/min/µg) =

Adjusted Vmax* (OD/min) x Conversion Factor** (nmol/OD)
amount of enzyme (µg)

     *Adjusted for Substrate Blank

     **Derived using calibration standard S-Lactoylglutathione (Sigma, Catalog # L7140).

Per Well:
  • rhGlyoxalase I: 0.020 µg
  • Glutathione: 2 mM
  • Methylglyoxal: 2 mM
Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Background: Glyoxalase I

Glyoxalase I (also lactoylglutathione lyase, methylglyoxalase, and glx I) is a 21 kDa member of the Glyoxalase I family. The enzyme is an isomerase that catalyzes the formation of S-D-lactoylglutathione from the hemimercaptal adduct that forms spontaneously between methylglyoxal and reduced GSH (1-4). The monomeric subunit for human Glyoxalase I is 184 amino acids (aa) in length. In the mature protein, the methionine at the N-terminus is removed. Human Glyoxalase I exists in three separable isoforms as homo-and hetero-dimers of two allelic subunit variants, which differ in charge (1). The isoforms are formed when residue 19 is changed from cysteine to tyrosine and residue 111 is changed from glutamine to alanine. Each subunit binds one Zn2+ atom (1, 3-4). The protein is made up of multiple beta strands and alpha helical regions. Human Glyoxalase I shares 91% and 90% aa sequence identity with rat and mouse Glyoxalase I, respectively. The enzyme is ubiquitously expressed and is also present in many tumor cell lines, in which its concentration is often upregulated (1). The biological role of the enzyme remains unclear, but the glyoxalase system detoxifies the precursors of advanced glycation end products, which take part in the pathogenesis of vascular, diabetic, and uremic complications (5).

  1. Ridderstrom, M. & B. Mannervik (1996) Biochem. J. 314:463.
  2. Marmstal, E. & B. Mannervik (1981) FEBS Lett. 131:301.
  3. Kim, N-S. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:11217.
  4. Ranganathan, S. et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:5661.
  5. Kalousova, M. et al. (2007) Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1126:268.
Entrez Gene IDs
2739 (Human); 109801 (Mouse); 294320 (Rat)
Alternate Names
Aldoketomutase; EC; GLO1; GLOD1; Glx I; GLYI; glyoxalase domain containing 1; Glyoxalase I; glyoxalase Ialdoketomutase; Ketone-aldehyde mutase; lactoyl glutathione lyase; lactoylglutathione lyase; Methylglyoxalase; S-D-lactoylglutathione methylglyoxal lyase

Citations for Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I Protein, CF

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

4 Citations: Showing 1 - 4
Filter your results:

Filter by:

  1. Combination of pharmacophore modeling and 3D-QSAR analysis of potential glyoxalase-I inhibitors as anticancer agents
    Authors: MA Al-Sha'er, QA Al-Balas, MA Hassan, GA Al Jabal, AM Almaaytah
    Comput Biol Chem, 2019;80(0):102-110.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Multi-Armed 1,2,3-Selenadiazole and 1,2,3-Thiadiazole Benzene Derivatives as Novel Glyoxalase-I Inhibitors
    Authors: QA Al-Balas, ML Al-Smadi, MA Hassan, GA Al Jabal, AM Almaaytah, KH Alzoubi
    Molecules, 2019;24(18):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Synthetic Compounds
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Capzimin is a potent and specific inhibitor of proteasome isopeptidase Rpn11
    Authors: J Li, T Yakushi, F Parlati, AL Mackinnon, C Perez, Y Ma, KP Carter, S Colayco, G Magnuson, B Brown, K Nguyen, S Vasile, E Suyama, LH Smith, E Sergienko, AB Pinkerton, TD Chung, AE Palmer, I Pass, S Hess, SM Cohen, RJ Deshaies
    Nat. Chem. Biol, 2017;0(0):.
    Species: N/A
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. Glyoxalase I reduces glycative and oxidative stress and prevents age-related endothelial dysfunction through modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation.
    Authors: Jo-Watanabe A, Ohse T, Nishimatsu H, Takahashi M, Ikeda Y, Wada T, Shirakawa J, Nagai R, Miyata T, Nagano T, Hirata Y, Inagi R, Nangaku M
    Aging Cell, 2014;13(3):519-28.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
    Applications: Bioassay


No product specific FAQs exist for this product, however you may

View all Proteins and Enzyme FAQs

Reconstitution Buffers

Reviews for Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I Protein, CF

There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I Protein, CF and earn rewards!

Have you used Recombinant Human Glyoxalase I Protein, CF?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review