Recombinant Human IL-21 Protein

(5 citations)   
  • Purity
    >95%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured in a cell proliferation assay using N1186 human T cells. Parrish-Novak, J. et al. (2000) Nature 408:57. The ED50 for this effect is 2-12 ng/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Gln25-Ser155, with a N-terminal Met
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
    Analysis
    Met
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    15 kDa
  • SDS-PAGE
    17 kDa, reducing conditions
Carrier Free
What does CF mean?
CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.
What formulation is right for me?
In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.
8879-IL
 
8879-IL/CF
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with BSA as a carrier protein.
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images

Recombinant Human IL-21 (Catalog # 8879-IL) stimulatesN1186 human T cell proliferation. The ED50 for this effect is2-12 ng/mL.

Background: IL-21
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is an approximately 14 kDa four-helix-bundle member of the family of cytokines that utilize the common gamma chain ( gamma c) as a receptor subunit. gamma c is also a subunit of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 (1). IL-21 is produced by activated T follicular helper cells (Tfh), Th17 cells, and NKT cells (2-6). It exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex of gamma c and the IL-21-specific IL-21 R (2, 7). Tfh-derived IL-21 plays an important role in the development of humoral immunity through its autocrine effects on the Tfh cell and paracrine effects on immunoglobulin affinity maturation, plasma cell differentiation, and B cell memory responses (4, 8, 9). It is also required for the migration of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes (10). IL-21 regulates several aspects of T cell function. It co-stimulates the activation, proliferation, and survival of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells and promotes Th17 cell polarization (3, 5, 6, 11, 12). It blocks the generation of regulatory T cells and their suppressive effects on CD4+ T cells (13, 14). IL-21 R engagement enhances the cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production of activated NK cells but limits the expansion of resting NK cells (15). In addition, IL-21 suppresses cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions by limiting allergen-specific IgE production and mast cell degranulation (16). Dysregulation of the IL-21/IL-21 R system contributes to the development of multiple immunological disorders (1, 17). The 133 amino acid (aa) mature human IL-21 shares 63% and 61% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-21, respectively. Alternative splicing generates an additional isoform with a substitution of the C-terminal 16 amino acids (18).
  • References:
    1. Tangye, S.G. (2015) Curr. Opin. Immunol. 34:107.
    2. Parrish-Novak, et al. (2000) Nature 408:57.
    3. Coquet, J.M. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:2827.
    4. Vogelzang, A. et al. (2008) Immunity 29:127.
    5. Korn, T. et al. (2007) Nature 448:484.
    6. Nurieva, R. et al. (2007) Nature 448:480.
    7. Asao, H. et al. (2001) J. Immunol. 167:1.
    8. Zotos, D. et al. (2010) J. Exp. Med. 207:365.
    9. Rankin, A.L. et al. (2011) J. Immunol. 186:667.
    10. Jin, H. et al. (2009) J. Clin. Invest. 119:47.
    11. Frohlich, A. et al. (2009) Science 324:1576.
    12. Yi, J.S., et al. (2009) Science 324:1572.
    13. Peluso, I. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:732.
    14. Bucher, C. et al. (2009) Blood 114:5375.
    15. Kasaian, M.T. et al. (2002) Immunity 16:559.
    16. Tamagawa-Mineoka, R. et al. (2011) J. Invest. Dermatol. 131:1513.
    17. Ma, J. et al. (2011) Cytokine 56:133.
    18. Rahman, M. et al. (2007) FEBS Lett. 581:4001.
  • Long Name:
    Interleukin 21
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    59067 (Human); 60505 (Mouse); 365769 (Rat); 442935 (Canine); 100344172 (Rabbit)
  • Alternate Names:
    IL21; IL-21; IL-21Za11interleukin-21; interleukin 21; interleukin-21 isoform
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

5 Citations: Showing 1 - 5
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Rad52 competes with Ku70/Ku86 for binding to S-region DSB ends to modulate antibody class-switch DNA recombination
    Authors: H Zan, C Tat, Z Qiu, JR Taylor, JA Guerrero, T Shen, P Casali
    Nat Commun, 2017;8(0):14244.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. The transcriptional coactivator TAZ regulates reciprocal differentiation of TH17 cells and Treg cells
    Authors: J Geng, S Yu, H Zhao, X Sun, X Li, P Wang, X Xiong, L Hong, C Xie, J Gao, Y Shi, J Peng, RL Johnson, N Xiao, L Lu, J Han, D Zhou, L Chen
    Nat. Immunol., 2017;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  3. The small FOXP1 isoform predominantly expressed in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and full length FOXP1 exert similar oncogenic and transcriptional activity in human B cells
    Haematologica, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  4. Eosinophils regulate peripheral B cell numbers in both mice and humans.
    Authors: Wong, Tina W, Doyle, Alfred D, Lee, James J, Jelinek, Diane F
    J Immunol, 2014;192(8):3548-58.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  5. Decreased RORC-dependent silencing of prostaglandin receptor EP2 induces autoimmune Th17 cells.
    Authors: Kofler D, Marson A, Dominguez-Villar M, Xiao S, Kuchroo V, Hafler D
    J Clin Invest, 2014;124(6):2513-22.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay

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