Recombinant Human MIS/AMH Protein

Carrier Free

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
1737-MS-010/CF

With Carrier

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
1737-MS-010
R&D Systems Recombinant Proteins and Enzymes
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Citations (16)
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Recombinant Human MIS/AMH Protein Summary

Product Specifications

Purity
>97%, by SDS-PAGE visualized with Silver Staining and quantitative densitometry by Coomassie® Blue Staining.
Endotoxin Level
<0.01 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
Activity
Measured by its binding ability in a functional ELISA. Immobilized Recombinant Human MIS/AMH at 3 µg/mL (100 µL/well) will bind Recombinant Rat MIS RII Fc Chimera (Catalog # 1618-MR) with a linear range of 1.6-100 ng/mL.
Source
E. coli-derived human MIS/AMH protein
Ala453-Arg560
Accession #
N-terminal Sequence
Analysis
Ala453
Structure / Form
Disulfide-linked homodimer
Predicted Molecular Mass
11.7 kDa (monomer)

Product Datasheets

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1737-MS (with carrier)

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1737-MS/CF (carrier free)

Carrier Free

What does CF mean?

CF stands for Carrier Free (CF). We typically add Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a carrier protein to our recombinant proteins. Adding a carrier protein enhances protein stability, increases shelf-life, and allows the recombinant protein to be stored at a more dilute concentration. The carrier free version does not contain BSA.

What formulation is right for me?

In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. In contrast, the carrier free protein is recommended for applications, in which the presence of BSA could interfere.

1737-MS

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA with BSA as a carrier protein.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl containing at least 0.1% human or bovine serum albumin.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

1737-MS/CF

Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in Acetonitrile and TFA.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile 4 mM HCl.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
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Background: MIS/AMH

Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), also named anti‑Müllerian hormone (AMH), is a tissue-specific TGF-beta superfamily growth factor. Its expression is restricted to the Sertoli cells of fetal and postnatal testis, and to the granulosa cells of postnatal ovary (1). The human MIS gene encodes a 553 amino acid residue (aa) prepropeptide containing a signal a sequence (1-24), a pro‑region (25-455), and the carboxyl-terminal bioactive protein (446-553) (2‑4). MIS is synthesized and secreted as a disulfide-linked homodimeric pro‑protein. Proteolytic cleavage is required to generate the N-terminal pro‑region and the C‑terminal bioactive protein, which remain associated in a non-covalent complex. Recombinant C‑terminal MIS has been shown to be bioactive. However, the complex with the N-terminal pro‑region showed enhanced activity (3, 5). The C‑terminal region contains the seven canonical cysteine residues found in TGF-beta  superfamily members. These cysteine residues are involved in inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds, which forms the cysteine knot structure. Human and mouse MIS share 73% and 90% aa sequence identity in their pro‑region and C‑terminal region, respectively. MIS induces Mullerian duct (female reproductive tract) regression during sexual differentiation in the male embryo (6). Posnatally, MIS has been shown to regulate gonadal functions (1). MIS inhibits Leydig cell proliferation and is a regulator of the initial and cyclic recruitment of ovarian follicles. MIS has also been found to have anti‑proliferative effects on breast, ovarian and prostate tumor cells (7-9).

Like other TGF-beta superfamily members, MIS signals via a heteromeric receptor complex consisting of a type I and a type II receptor serine/threonine kinase. Depending on the cell context, different type I receptors (including Act RIA/ALK2, BMP RIA/ALK3, and BMP RIB/ALK6) that are shared by other TGF-beta superfamily members, have been implicated in MIS signaling (10 - 12). In contrast, the type II MIS receptor (MIS RII) is unique and does not bind other TGF-beta superfamily members. Upon ligand binding, MIS RII recruits the non-ligand binding type I receptor into the complex, resulting in phosphorylation the BMP-like signaling pathway effector proteins Smad1, Smad5 and Smad 8 (10‑12).

References
  1. Teixeira, et al. (2001) Endocrine Rev. 22:657.
  2. Pepinsky, R.et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:18961.
  3. Wilson, C.A. et al. (1993) Mol. Endocrinol. 7:247.
  4. Kurian, M.S. et al. (1995) Clin. Cancer Res. 1:343.
  5. Nachtigal, J.S. and H.A. Ingraham (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93:7711.
  6. MacLaughlin, D.T. et al. (1991) Methods Enzymol. 35:358.
  7. Laurich, V.M. et al. (2002) Endocrinology 143:3351.
  8. McGee, E.A. et al. (2001) Biol. Reprod. 64:293.
  9. Segev, D.L. et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99:239.
  10. Josso, N and N. diClemente (2003) Trends Endo. Met. 14:91.
  11. Clarke, T.R. et al. (2001) Mol. Endocrinol. 15:946.
  12. Visser, J.A. (2003) Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 211:65.
Long Name
Mullerian-inhibiting Substance/Anti-Mullerian Hormone
Entrez Gene IDs
268 (Human); 11705 (Mouse)
Alternate Names
AMH; MIF; MIS; Muellerian hormone; muellerian-inhibiting factor; muellerian-inhibiting substance; Mullerian hormone; Mullerian inhibiting factor; Mullerian inhibiting substance

Citations for Recombinant Human MIS/AMH Protein

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

16 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Anti-M�llerian Hormone Regulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus Requires MAPK Signaling and Kv4.2 Potassium Channel Activity
    Authors: K Wang, F Xu, J Maylie, J Xu
    Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2021;15(0):772251.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  2. Functional Activity of Recombinant Forms of Amh and Synergistic Action with Fsh in European Sea Bass Ovary
    Authors: C Zapater, A Rocha, G Molés, A Mascoli, S Ibañez, S Zanuy, A Gómez
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2021;22(18):.
    Species: Sea bass
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  3. Effect of anti-M�llerian hormone on the regulation of pituitary gonadotropin subunit expression: roles of kisspeptin and its receptors in gonadotroph L&betaT2 cells
    Authors: T Tumurbaata, H Kanasaki, Z Tumurgan, A Oride, H Okada, S Kyo
    Endocrine journal, 2021;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  4. The proportion of cleaved anti-M�llerian hormone is higher in serum but not follicular fluid of obese women independently of polycystic ovary syndrome
    Authors: M Peigné, P Pigny, MW Pankhurst, E Drumez, A Loyens, D Dewailly, S Catteau-Jo, P Giacobini
    Reprod Biomed Online, 2020;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  5. Defective AMH signaling disrupts GnRH neuron development and function and contributes to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
    Authors: SA Malone, GE Papadakis, A Messina, NEH Mimouni, S Trova, M Imbernon, C Allet, I Cimino, J Acierno, D Cassatella, C Xu, R Quinton, G Szinnai, P Pigny, L Alonso-Cot, L Masgrau, JD Maréchal, V Prevot, N Pitteloud, P Giacobini
    Elife, 2019;8(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  6. Anti-M�llerian hormone inhibits luteinizing hormone-induced androstenedione synthesis in porcine theca cells
    Authors: Y Li, D Gao, T Xu, MK Adur, L Zhang, L Luo, T Zhu, X Tong, D Zhang, Y Wang, W Ning, X Qi, Z Cao, Y Zhang
    Theriogenology, 2019;142(0):421-432.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Cell Culture
  7. Elevated prenatal anti-M�llerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood
    Authors: B Tata, NEH Mimouni, AL Barbotin, SA Malone, A Loyens, P Pigny, D Dewailly, S Catteau-Jo, I Sundström-, TT Piltonen, F Dal Bello, C Medana, V Prevot, J Clasadonte, P Giacobini
    Nat. Med., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: In Vivo
    Applications: In Vivo
  8. The mechanisms underlying the effects of AMH on M�llerian duct regression in male mice
    Authors: A Yamamoto, T Omotehara, Y Miura, T Takada, N Yoneda, T Hirano, Y Mantani, H Kitagawa, T Yokoyama, N Hoshi
    J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Organoid Culture
  9. Anti-M�llerian hormone overexpression restricts preantral ovarian follicle survival
    Authors: MW Pankhurst, RL Kelley, RL Sanders, SR Woodcock, DE Oorschot, NJ Batchelor
    J. Endocrinol., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  10. Anti-Mullerian hormone promotes pre-antral follicle growth, but inhibits antral follicle maturation and dominant follicle selection in primates.
    Authors: Xu J, Bishop C, Lawson M, Park B, Xu F
    Hum Reprod, 2016;31(7):1522-30.
    Species: Primate - Macaca nemestrina (Southern Pig-tailed Macaque)
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  11. Anti-mullerian hormone is expressed by endometriosis tissues and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in endometriosis cells.
    Authors: Signorile P, Petraglia F, Baldi A
    J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 2014;33(0):46.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  12. Widespread potential for growth-factor-driven resistance to anticancer kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Wilson TR, Fridlyand J, Yan Y, Penuel E, Burton L, Chan E, Peng J, Lin E, Wang Y, Sosman J, Ribas A, Li J, Moffat J, Sutherlin DP, Koeppen H, Merchant M, Neve R, Settleman J
    Nature, 2012;487(7408):505-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  13. Soluble Endoglin Specifically Binds Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 9 and 10 via Its Orphan Domain, Inhibits Blood Vessel Formation, and Suppresses Tumor Growth.
    Authors: Castonguay R, Werner ED, Matthews RG, Presman E, Mulivor AW, Solban N, Sako D, Pearsall RS, Underwood KW, Seehra J, Kumar R, Grinberg AV
    J. Biol. Chem., 2011;286(34):30034-46.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Recombinant Protein
    Applications: Surface Plasmon Resonance
  14. Inhibitory actions of Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) on ovarian primordial follicle assembly.
    Authors: Nilsson EE, Schindler R, Savenkova MI, Skinner MK
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(5):e20087.
    Species: Rat
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: Bioassay
  15. Evidence for a Mullerian-inhibiting substance autocrine/paracrine system in adult human endometrium.
    Authors: Wang J, Dicken C, Lustbader JW, Tortoriello DV
    Fertil. Steril., 2009;91(4):1195-203.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay
  16. A rapid and sensitive bioassay for the simultaneous measurement of multiple bone morphogenetic proteins. Identification and quantification of BMP4, BMP6 and BMP9 in bovine and human serum.
    Authors: Herrera B, Inman GJ,
    BMC Cell Biol., 2009;10(0):20.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Bioassay

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