Recombinant Mouse CXCL4/PF4 Protein, CF

(2 citations)   
  • Purity
    >97%, by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions and visualized by silver stain
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the protein by the LAL method.
  • Activity
    Measured by its ability to inhibit the FGF basic-dependent proliferation of HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Dubrac, A. et al. (2010) Blood 116:4703. The ED50 for this effect is typically 2-10 μg/mL.
  • Source
    E. coli-derived Val30-Ser105
  • Accession #
  • N-terminal Sequence
  • Predicted Molecular Mass
    8.2 kDa
Formulation Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS.
Reconstitution Reconstitute at 100 μg/mL in sterile PBS.
Shipping The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Stability & Storage: Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 3 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Data Images
1 μg/lane of Recombinant Mouse CXCL4/PF4 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) conditions and visualized by silver staining, showing a single band at 10 kDa.
Recombinant Mouse CXCL4/PF4 (Catalog # 595-P4) inhibits the FGF basic-dependent proliferation of HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The ED50 for this effect is typically 2-10 μg/mL.
Background: CXCL4/PF4

CXCL4, also called PF4 (platelet factor 4), is an 8 kDa member of the CXC chemokine family, sharing features with CXCL8/IL-8 and CXCL7/NAP-2 (1-3). Mature mouse CXCL4 shares 76%, 88%, 64%, 64% and 63% amino acid sequence identity with human, rat, ovine, porcine and bovine CXCL4, respectively. The active protein is a tetramer of CXCL4 subunits that forms a ring of heparin-binding positive charges from sites at the C-terminal region of each monomer (3). Megakaryocytes synthesize CXCL4 and store it in platelet alpha -granules (2, 3). Secretion from activated platelets can produce micromolar levels in serum and over 100‑fold higher within clots (2, 3). In contrast to other CXC chemokines, CXCL4 does not contain an ELR motif and lacks binding to nearly all chemokine receptors (2, 3). A potential high-affinity G-protein-coupled receptor for CXCL4, the CXCR3 isoform CXCR3B, is expressed in human but not mouse (2, 3). In most cases, it is likely that cell surface binding and signaling properties of CXCL4 are due to binding of glycosaminoglycans chains, particularly chondroitin sulfates (2). CXCL4 released from activated platelets binds and regulates thrombin/thrombomodulin complexes, regulates and enhances production of activated Protein C (APC), and limits the coagulation cascade (2-6). It binds and influences the enzymatic activity of coagulation factor Xa (7). It binds fibrin and affects clot structure (8). Therapeutic doses of the anticoagulant heparin neutralize CXCL4 procoagulant effects (9). The complex between heparin and CXCL4 can be immunogenic, and circulating CXCL4-heparin antibodies cause the human syndrome HITT (heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis, also called HIT) (2). In addition, immunogenic complexes of CXCL4 with apolipoprotein H can contribute to antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (10). CXCL4 can be antiproliferative and antiangiogenic, at least in part via interfering with FGF-2 and VEGF heparin binding and thus inhibiting their signaling (3, 11-13). However, it can also be proinflammatory and pro‑atherogenic through multiple effects on monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells (2, 3).

  • References:
    1. Poncz, M. et al. (1987) Blood 69:219.
    2. Kowalska, M.A. et al. (2010) Thromb. Res. 125:292.
    3. Slungaard, A. (2005) Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 37:1162.
    4. Slungaard, A. et al. (2003) Blood 102:146.
    5. Kowalska, M.A. et al. (2007) Blood 110:1903.
    6. Preston, R.J.S. et al. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284:5869.
    7. Fiore, M.M. and I.J. Mackie (2009) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 379:1072.
    8. Amelot, A.A. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282:710.
    9. Eslin, D.E. et al. (2004) Blood 104:3173.
    10. Sikara, M.P. et al. (2010) Blood 115:713.
    11. Perollet, C. et al. (1998) Blood 91:3289.
    12. Gengrinovitch, S. et al. (1995) Journal of Biological Chemistry 270:15059.
    13. Sulpice, E. et al. (2004) Eur. J. Biochem. 271:3310.
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    5196 (Human); 56744 (Mouse); 360918 (Rat)
  • Alternate Names:
    chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4; C-X-C motif chemokine 4; CXCL4iroplact; Iroplact; MGC138298; Oncostatin-A; PF4; PF-4; platelet factor 4; SCYB4oncostatin-A
Related Research Areas

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Sample Type
  1. Expression of CXCL4 in microglia in vitro and in vivo and its possible signaling through CXCR3.
    Authors: de Jong EK, de Haas AH, Brouwer N, van Weering HR, Hensens M, Bechmann I, Pratley P, Wesseling E, Boddeke HW, Biber K
    J. Neurochem., 2008;105(5):1726-36.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
  2. The role of CCL21 in recruitment of T-precursor cells to fetal thymi.
    Authors: Ueno T, Kuse S, Saito F, Nitta T, Kakiuchi T, Hollander GA, Takahama Y
    Blood, 2005;105(1):31-9.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Bioassay
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