SP 600125

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
1496/10
1496/50
SP 600125 | CAS No. 129-56-6 | JNK/c-jun Inhibitors
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Description: Selective JNK inhibitor

Chemical Name: Anthra[1-9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one

Purity: ≥98%

Product Details
Citations (108)
Reviews (3)

Biological Activity

Selective JNK inhibitor. Competitively and reversibly inhibits JNK1, 2 and 3 (IC50 = 40 - 90 nM) with negligible activity at ERK2, p38β and a range of enzymes. Active in vivo. Exhibits reduced selectivity over other protein kinases under certain conditions. Protects renal tubular epithelial cells against ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis. Prevents BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Essential component of medium for maintaining stem cells in naive pluripotent state. Available as part of the MAPK Inhibitor Tocriset™.

Technical Data

M.Wt:
220.23
Formula:
C14H8N2O
Solubility:
Soluble to 100 mM in DMSO
Purity:
≥98%
Storage:
Store at -20°C
CAS No:
129-56-6

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

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Citations for SP 600125

The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for SP 600125 include:

108 Citations: Showing 1 - 10

  1. Purpurogallin Protects Keratinocytes from Damage and Apoptosis Induced by Ultraviolet B Radiation and Particulate Matter 2.5.
    Authors: Zhen Et al.
    Biomol Ther (Seoul)  2019;27:395
  2. Scratching Counteracts IL-13 Signaling by Upregulating the Decoy Receptor IL-13Rα2 in Keratinocytes.
    Authors: Ulzii Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci  2019;20
  3. The peroxidase PRDX1 inhibits the activated phenotype in mammary fibroblasts through regulating c-Jun N-terminal kinases.
    Authors: Jezierska-Drutel Et al.
    BMC Cancer  2019;19:812
  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide controls the suprachiasmatic circadian clock network via ERK1/2 and DUSP4 signalling.
    Authors: Hamnett Et al.
    Nat Commun  2019;10:542
  5. Enhanced Glycolysis Supports Cell Survival in EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma by Inhibiting Autophagy-Mediated EGFR Degradation.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Cancer Res  2018;78:4482
  6. Ins. mutations impair beta-cell development in a patient-derived iPSC model of neonatal diabetes.
    Authors: Balboa Et al.
    Elife  2018;7
  7. Suppressive effects of berberine on atherosclerosis via downregulating visfatin expression and attenuating visfatin-induced endothelial dysfunction.
    Authors: Wan Et al.
    Int J Mol Med  2018;41:1939
  8. Improving Cell Survival in Injected Embryos Allows Primed Pluripotent Stem Cells to Generate Chimeric Cynomolgus Monkeys.
    Authors: Kang Et al.
    Cell Rep  2018;25:2563
  9. Trehalose Activates CRE-Dependent Transcriptional Signaling in HT22 Mouse Hippocampal Neuronal Cells: A Central Role for PKA Without cAMP Elevation.
    Authors: Maronde
    Front Mol Neurosci  2018;11:386
  10. Capsaicin-induced TRIB3 upregulation promotes apoptosis in cancer cells.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    Cancer Manag Res  2018;10:4237
  11. Type I and Type III IF.s Display Different Dependency on Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to Mount an Antiviral State in the Human Gut.
    Authors: Pervolaraki Et al.
    Front Immunol  2017;8:459
  12. Induction of Bex genes by curcumin is associated with apoptosis and activation of p53 in N2a neuroblastoma cells.
    Authors: Sidhar and Giri
    Sci Rep  2017;7:41420
  13. TRIB3 downregulation enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cells.
    Authors: Wu
    Arch Biochem Biophys  2017;622:26
  14. TNFα induces tolerant production of CXC chemokines in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells via A20 inhibition of ERK signaling.
    Authors: Zhou
    Int Immunopharmacol  2017;54:296
  15. Focal Adhesion Kinase Promotes the Progression of Aortic Aneurysm by Modulating Macrophage Behavior.
    Authors: Harada Et al.
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol  2017;37:156
  16. Hypothalamic AMPK-ER Stress-JNK1 Axis Mediates the Central Actions of Thyroid Hormones on Energy Balance.
    Authors: Martínez-Sánchez Et al.
    Cell Metab  2017;26:212
  17. Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells with In Vivo Embryonic and Extraembryonic Potency.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    Cell  2017;169:243
  18. Cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to sprouted innervation in endometrial ectopic growth through mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.
    Authors: Han
    Brain Res  2017;1663:132
  19. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes g.tropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.
    Authors: Abedini Et al.
    FASEB J  2016;30:1534
  20. Estrogen receptor β controls MMP-19 expression in mouse ovaries during ovulation.
    Authors: Nalvarte Et al.
    Reproduction  2016;151:253
  21. Derivation of Patient Specific Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Clinically Discarded Cumulus Cells.
    Authors: Chang Et al.
    PLoS One  2016;11:e0165715
  22. 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid lethality for neuroblastoma cells via de-regulating the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 complex and inducing apoptosis.
    Authors: Rahman Et al.
    Biochemical Pharmacology  2016;117:97
  23. Effects of jnk inhibitor on inflammation and fibrosis in the ovary tissue of a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Authors: Bulut Et al.
    Exp Hematol Oncol  2015;8:8774
  24. Hyperphosphate-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy through the GATA-4/NFAT-3 Signaling Pathway Is Attenuated by ERK Inhibitor Treatment.
    Authors: Liu Et al.
    Int J Mol Sci  2015;5:79
  25. Tissue factor/factor VIIa signalling promotes cytokine-induced beta cell death and impairs glucose-stimulated Ins secretion from human pancreatic islets.
    Authors: Edén Et al.
    Diabetologia  2015;58:2563
  26. Analysis of the anti-proliferative and the pro-apoptotic efficacy of Syk inhibition in multiple myeloma.
    Authors: Koerber Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;4:21
  27. Free fatty acids shift Ins-induced hepatocyte proliferation towards CD95-dependent apoptosis.
    Authors: Sommerfeld Et al.
    J Biomed Sci  2015;290:4398
  28. Black Rice Anthocyanins Suppress Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting RAS/RAF/MAPK Pathway.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol  2015;2015:414250
  29. Inhibition of G9a Histone Methyltransferase Converts Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Cardiac Competent Progenitors.
    Authors: Yang Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;2015:270428
  30. Neutrophil IL-1β processing induced by pneumolysin is mediated by the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome and caspase-1 activation and is dependent on K+ efflux.
    Authors: Karmakar Et al.
    Nat Commun  2015;194:1763
  31. Inhibitory effect of STAT on inflammation-related pathways in human abdominal aortic aneurysm tissue.
    Authors: Yoshimura Et al.
    Biomed Res Int  2015;16:11213
  32. Activation of transcription factor AP-1 in response to thermal injury in rat small intestine and IEC-6 cells.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    BMC Gastroenterol  2015;15:83
  33. The Effects of the Endocannabinoids Anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol on Human Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation.
    Authors: Smith Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2015;10:e0136546
  34. Maintenance of Mouse Nephron Progenitor Cells in Aggregates with Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor.
    Authors: Yuri Et al.
    PLoS One  2015;10:e0129242
  35. Adiponectin ameliorates experimental periodontitis in diet-induced obesity mice.
    Authors: Zhang Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e97824
  36. Differential effects of the Toll-like receptor 2 agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on anti-IgE induced human mast cell activation.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    PLoS One  2014;9:e112989
  37. Angiogenic growth factors augment K-Cl cotransporter expression in erythroid cells via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.
    Authors: Gonsalves Et al.
    Am J Hematol  2014;89:273
  38. Endocannabinoids modulate cortical development by configuring Slit2/Robo1 signalling.
    Authors: Alpár Et al.
    Steroids  2014;5:4421
  39. miR-155 induced transcriptome changes in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line leads to enhanced mitogen activated protein kinase signaling.
    Authors: Martin Et al.
    Korean J Physiol Pharmacol  2014;5:353
  40. AMP-activated protein kinase determines apoptotic sensitivity of cancer cells to ginsenoside-Rh2.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Ginseng Res  2014;38:16
  41. Central SDF-1/CXCL12 expression and its cardiovascular and sympathetic effects: the role of angiotensin II, TNF-α, and MAP kinase signaling.
    Authors: Wei Et al.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  2014;307:H1643
  42. P2Y2 nucleotide receptor activation enhances the aggregation and self-organization of dispersed salivary epithelial cells.
    Authors: El-Sayed Et al.
    J Cell Mol Med  2014;307:C83
  43. Activation of pattern recognition receptors in brown adipocytes induces inflammation and suppresses uncoupling protein 1 expression and mitochondrial respiration.
    Authors: Bae Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol  2014;306:C918
  44. ERK/MAPK regulates ERRγ expression, transcriptional activity and receptor-mediated tamox. resistance in ER+ breast cancer.
    Authors: Heckler Et al.
    FEBS J  2014;281:2431
  45. Decrease of PKB/Akt Phosphorylation is Partially Mediated by SAPK/JNK Activation in Serum-free L6 Myoblasts Starved with Low Glucose.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    J Phys Ther Sci  2014;26:1757
  46. Protective effect of Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) on angiotensin II-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med  2014;14:358
  47. Suppression of MAPK/JNK-MTORC1 signaling leads to premature loss of organelles and nuclei by autophagy during terminal differentiation of lens fiber cells.
    Authors: Basu Et al.
    Autophagy  2014;10:1193
  48. Transcriptional regulation of an Ins-sensitizing adipokine adipolin/CTRP12 in adipocytes by Krüppel-like factor 15.
    Authors: Enomoto Et al.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol  2013;8:e83183
  49. Fibroblast growth factor-4 enhances proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells via activation of c-Jun signaling.
    Authors: Kook Et al.
    PLoS One  2013;8:e71641
  50. Sphingosine 1-phosphate counteracts the effects of interleukin-1β in human chondrocytes.
    Authors: Stradner Et al.
    Genes Cancer  2013;65:2113
  51. The role of bioactive nanofibers in enamel regeneration mediated through integrin signals acting upon C/EBPα and c-Jun.
    Authors: Huang Et al.
    Biomaterials  2013;34:3303
  52. PI3K-Akt signaling activates mTOR-mediated epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal culture model of post-traumatic epilepsy.
    Authors: Berdichevsky Et al.
    J Neurosci  2013;33:9056
  53. Arginase-II induces vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and apoptosis through p66Shc and p53 independently of its l-arginine ureahydrolase activity: implications for atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.
    Authors: Xiong Et al.
    J Am Heart Assoc  2013;2:e000096
  54. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells.
    Authors: Suk Et al.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med  2013;2013:658370
  55. Label-free integrative pharmacology on-target of opioid ligands at the opioid receptor family.
    Authors: Morse Et al.
    BMC Pharmacol Toxicol  2013;14:17
  56. Identification and characterization of a novel class of c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitors.
    Authors: Schepetkin Et al.
    Mol Pharmacol  2012;81:832
  57. Desipramine protects neuronal cell death and induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in Mes23.5 DArgic neurons.
    Authors: Lin Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;7:e50138
  58. Free fatty acid palmitate impairs the vitality and function of cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Oberbach Et al.
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol  2012;7:e41026
  59. Activation of canonical Wnt signalling is required for TGF-β-mediated fibrosis.
    Authors: Akhmetshina Et al.
    Stem Cells Int  2012;3:735
  60. Fibroblast growth factor-23 abolishes 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-enhanced duodenal calcium transport in male mice.
    Authors: Khuituan Et al.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab  2012;302:E903
  61. Cyclic AMP increases COX-2 expression via mitogen-activated kinase in human myometrial cells.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    PLoS One  2012;16:1447
  62. Inflammatory muscle pain is dependent on the activation of kinin B1 and B2 receptors and intracellular kinase pathways.
    Authors: Meotti Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2012;166:1127
  63. Ligand-directed functional selectivity at the mu opioid receptor revealed by label-free integrative pharmacology on-target.
    Authors: Morse Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;6:e25643
  64. Mitochondrial localized STAT3 is involved in NGF induced neurite outgrowth.
    Authors: Zhou and Too
    Arthritis Rheum  2011;6:e21680
  65. Reversible differentiation of myofibroblasts by MyoD.
    Authors: Hecker Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2011;317:1914
  66. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 2 regulates nerve growth factor release to induce airway inflammation via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway.
    Authors: Ye Et al.
    J Inflamm (Lond)  2011;300:L216
  67. JNK suppression is essential for 17β-OE inhibits prostaglandin E2-Induced uPA and MMP-9 expressions and cell migration in human LoVo colon cancer cells.
    Authors: Hsu Et al.
    PLoS One  2011;18:61
  68. MUC5AC expression through bidirectional communication of Notch and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways.
    Authors: Kang Et al.
    J Immunol  2011;187:222
  69. Thrombin-induced Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression Are Regulated by MAPK and PI3K Pathways in C6 Glioma Cells.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Nat Commun  2011;15:211
  70. Carnosic acid induces the NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression in rat clone 9 cells through the p38/nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 pathway.
    Authors: Tsai Et al.
    J Nutr  2011;141:2119
  71. Phosphorylation of Junb family proteins by the Jun N-terminal kinase supports tissue regeneration in zebrafish.
    Authors: Ishida Et al.
    Dev Biol  2010;340:468
  72. Prevention of premature senescence requires JNK regulation of Bcl-2 and reactive oxygen species.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Oncogene  2010;29:561
  73. miR-155 and its star-form partner miR-155* cooperatively regulate type I IF. production by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
    Authors: Zhou Et al.
    Blood  2010;116:5885
  74. Bone morphogenic protein-4 impairs endothelial function through oxidative stress-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 upregulation: implications on hypertension.
    Authors: Wong Et al.
    Circ Res  2010;107:984
  75. c-Jun protects hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha from degradation via its oxygen-dependent degradation domain in a nontranscriptional manner.
    Authors: Yu Et al.
    Cancer Res  2009;69:7704
  76. AMP kinase signaling determines whether c-Jun N-terminal kinase promotes survival or apoptosis during glucose deprivation.
    Authors: Yun Et al.
    Carcinogenesis  2009;30:529
  77. PHR regulates growth cone pausing at intermediate targets through microtubule disassembly.
    Authors: Hendricks and Jesuthasan
    J Neurosci  2009;29:6593
  78. Ethanol augments RANTES/CCL5 expression in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and human endothelial cells via activation of NF-kappa B, HIF-1 alpha, and AP-1.
    Authors: Yeligar Et al.
    J Immunol  2009;183:5964
  79. Transcriptional regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 release by endothelin-1 in human airway smooth muscle cells involves NF-kappaB and AP-1.
    Authors: Sutcliffe Et al.
    Br J Pharmacol  2009;157:436
  80. The expression of the beta-defensins hBD-2 and hBD-3 is differentially regulated by NF-kappaB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways in an in vitro model of Candida esophagitis.
    Authors: Steubesand Et al.
    BMC Immunol  2009;10:36
  81. 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 up-regulates death receptor 5 gene expression in HCT116 cells: involvement of reactive oxygen species and C/EBP homologous transcription factor gene transcription.
    Authors: Su Et al.
    Mol Cancer Ther  2008;7:3429
  82. Glioma regression in vitro and in vivo by a suicide combined treatment.
    Authors: García-Escudero Et al.
    Exp Cell Res  2008;6:407
  83. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate upregulation of hypothalamic angiotensin II type 1 receptors in heart failure rats.
    Authors: Wei Et al.
    Hypertension  2008;52:679
  84. Reactive oxygen species stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha protein and stimulate transcriptional activity via AMP-activated protein kinase in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.
    Authors: Jung Et al.
    Carcinogenesis  2008;29:713
  85. MAP kinases mediate interleukin-13 effects on calcium signaling in human airway smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Moynihan Et al.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol  2008;295:L171
  86. c-Jun controls histone modifications, NF-kappaB recruitment, and RNA polymerase II function to activate the ccl2 gene.
    Authors: Wolter Et al.
    Mol Cell Biol  2008;28:4407
  87. Transcriptional regulation of EGR-1 by the interleukin-1-JNK-MKK7-c-Jun pathway.
    Authors: Hoffmann Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2008;283:12120
  88. Ceramide induces p38 MAPK and JNK activation through a mechanism involving a thioredoxin-interacting protein-mediated pathway.
    Authors: Chen Et al.
    Blood  2008;111:4365
  89. Induction of human beta-defensin 2 by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 is mediated through flagellin.
    Authors: Schlee Et al.
    Infect Immun  2007;75:2399
  90. Delayed and persistent ERK1/2 activation is required for 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced cell death.
    Authors: Zhou Et al.
    Mol Cancer Res  2007;72:765
  91. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside sensitizes TRAIL- and TNF{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells through AMP-activated protein kinase signaling.
    Authors: Su Et al.
    Mol Cancer Ther  2007;6:1562
  92. Requirement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase for long-term potentiation in adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex.
    Authors: Toyoda Et al.
    Mol Pain  2007;3:36
  93. PacT.-induced nuclear translocation of FOXO3a in breast cancer cells is mediated by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and Akt.
    Authors: Sunters Et al.
    Cancer Res  2006;66:212
  94. Different roles for non-receptor tyrosine kinases in arachidonate release induced by zymosan and Staphylococcus aureus in macrophages.
    Authors: Olsson and Sundler
    J Immunol  2006;3:8
  95. PacT. (Taxol) upregulates expression of functional interleukin-6 in human ovarian cancer cells through multiple signaling pathways.
    Authors: Wang Et al.
    Oncogene  2006;25:4857
  96. Cingulin regulates claudin-2 expression and cell proliferation through the small GTPase RhoA.
    Authors: Guillemot and Citi
    Mol Biol Cell  2006;17:3569
  97. Two distinct signaling pathways regulate peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.
    Authors: Shacka Et al.
    Cardiorenal Med  2006;13:1506
  98. Transforming growth factor-beta1 regulates macrophage migration via RhoA.
    Authors: Kim Et al.
    Blood  2006;108:1821
  99. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2.
    Authors: Kauppinen Et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  2006;103:7136
  100. Estrogen receptor alpha pathway is involved in the regulation of Calbindin-D9k in the uterus of immature rats.
    Authors: Lee Et al.
    Toxicol Sci  2005;84:270
  101. Inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase sensitizes tumor cells to CD95-induced apoptosis and induces G2/M cell cycle arrest.
    Authors: Kuntzen Et al.
    Cancer Res  2005;65:6780
  102. Glucose deprivation increases mRNA stability of vascular endothelial growth factor through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in DU145 prostate carcinoma.
    Authors: Yun Et al.
    Blood  2005;280:9963
  103. MEK1-dependent delayed expression of Fos-related antigen-1 counteracts c-Fos and p65 NF-kappaB-mediated interleukin-8 transcription in response to cytokines or growth factors.
    Authors: Hoffmann Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2005;280:9706
  104. Oxygen-sensitive {δ}-opioid receptor-regulated survival and death signals: novel insights into neuronal preconditioning and protection.
    Authors: Ma Et al.
    PLoS One  2005;280:16208
  105. Induction of apoptosis and stress response in ovarian carcinoma cell lines treated with ST1926, an atypical retinoid.
    Authors: Zuco Et al.
    Cell Death Differ  2004;11:280
  106. Disruption of the c-JUN-JNK complex by a cell-permeable peptide containing the c-JUN delta domain induces apoptosis and affects a distinct set of interleukin-1-induced inflammatory genes.
    Authors: Holzberg Et al.
    J Biol Chem  2003;278:40213
  107. Mechanisms in LPA-induced tumor cell migration: critical role of phosphorylated ERK.
    Authors: Stähle Et al.
    J Cell Sci  2003;116:3835
  108. Acadesine activates AMPK and induces apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells but not in T lymphocytes.
    Authors: Campàs Et al.
    Cell Death Differ  2003;101:3674

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JNK inhibition in LPA induced pro-inflammatory phenotype in microglia.
By lisha joshi on 06/10/2019
Application: Species: Mouse

Primary murine microglia were treated with LPA (1µM) in the presence or absence of SP600125 (10µM) in order to investigate the role of JNK pathway in the LPA induced inflammatory phenotype. The inhibitor was well tolerated by the cells. DMSO was used as a vehicle control. Cells were lysed and collected for WB analysis in order to identify changes in the expression of COX2 and Arg1.


SP 600125 inhibits JNK activation in HOCl-LDL treated cardiomyocytes
By Chintan Koyani on 10/13/2018
Application: Species: Mouse

HL-1 cardiomyocytes were treated with SP 600125 (5 or 10 μM, 30 min) followed by 500 μg/ml HOCl-LDL (oxidant:lipoprotein molar ratio=800:1) for 1 h to follow pJNK expression using Western blot. SP 600125 at 10 μM concentration, completely inhibited activation of JNK.


JNK inhibition in BV2 microglia
By Joanna Plastira on 10/10/2018
Application: Species: Mouse

The inhibitor was used at a concentration of 10µM in BV2 microglia cell line. SP600125 inhibited the LPA induced activation of transcription factors (western blotting). It was also used in flow cytometry, ELISAs, IF and functional assays. The results were constant and reproducible.


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