Superoxide Dismutase Assay Kit
Superoxide Dismutase Assay Kit Summary
The Superoxide Dismutase Assay Kit provides researchers a simple, reproducible, and fast tool for assaying Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity in cell and tissue extracts. SODs are metalloenzymes that catalyze the dismutation of the superoxide radical (O2•-) into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and molecular oxygen (O2), providing an important defense against oxidative damage. In the Superoxide Dismutase Assay, superoxide ions are generated from the conversion of xanthine and O2 to uric acid and H2O2 by Xanthine Oxidase (XOD). The superoxide anion then coverts the tetrazolium salt NBT to NBT-diformazan, a formazan dye. Absorbance is then measured at 550 nm using a standard spectrophotometer. Addition of SOD to this reaction reduces superoxide ion levels, thereby lowering the rate of NBT-diformazan formation. SOD activity in the experimental sample is measured as the percent inhibition of the rate of NBT-diformazan formation.
- SOD Reaction Buffer
- Xanthine Solution
- Xanthine Oxidase Solution
- NBT Solution
- Cell Lysis Solution
SOD Inhibition Assay Mechanism
XOD and SOD Antagonism in the Generation of Formazan Dye. The conversion of xanthine and O2 to uric acid and H2O2by XOD generates superoxide radicals. The superoxide anions reduce a tetrazolium salt (nitroblue tetrazolium [NBT] or WST-1) to a colored formazan product (NBT-diformazan or WST-1 formazan) that absorbs light. SOD scavenges superoxide anions, thereby reducing the rate of formazan dye formation.
Preparation and Storage
Background: SOD (Superoxide Dismutase)
Superoxide Dismutases, originally identified as Indophenoloxidases (IPOs), are enzymes that catalyze the conversion of naturally-occuring but harmful superoxide radicals into molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Three mammalian isozymes of SOD have been identified and are functionally related but have very modest sequence homology. SODs are typically soluble secreted or cytosolic proteins, but are also found in the mitochondria and extracellular matrix.
Any of three metals, manganese, iron, or copper, may be used in the active site of SOD and are indicative of cellular localization.MnSOD (SOD2) is found in the mitochondria of both prokaryotes and ukaryotes, whereas the cytosol of eukaryotes and prokaryotic organisms contains Cu/ZnSOD (SOD1) and FeSOD, respectively.
There have been several mutations identified in the Cu/ZnSOD (SOD1) gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, possibly suggesting a role for free radicals in this disease process. The mechanism of motor neuron degeneration that occurs in ALS, however, is unclear at this time. Several hypotheses have been explored for the role of mutant SOD1 and convincing evidence for the involvement of apoptosis has been presented, as well.
Citations for Superoxide Dismutase Assay Kit
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Ginkgo biloba extract-761 protects myocardium by regulating Akt/Nrf2 signal pathway
Authors: XJ Chen, SM Ren, JZ Dong, CG Qiu, YW Chen, HL Tao
Drug Des Devel Ther, 2019;13(0):647-655. 2019
Anti-Hyperuricemic Effect of 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone-5-sulfonic Acid in Hyperuricemic Mice through XOD
Authors: T Yong, D Li, M Li, D Liang, X Diao, C Deng, S Chen, Y Xie, D Chen, D Zuo
Molecules, 2018;23(10):. 2018
Suppression of human arthritis synovial fibroblasts inflammation using dexamethasone-carbon nanotubes via increasing caveolin-dependent endocytosis and recovering mitochondrial membrane potential
Authors: YK Lee, SW Kim, JY Park, WC Kang, YJ Kang, D Khang
Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12(0):5761-5779. 2017
Pulmonary Biocompatibility Assessment of Inhaled Single-wall and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in BALB/c Mice.
Authors: Ravichandran P, Baluchamy S, Gopikrishnan R, Biradar S, Ramesh V, Goornavar V, Thomas R, Wilson BL, Jeffers R, Hall JC, Ramesh GT
J. Biol. Chem., 2011;286(34):29725-33. 2011
XIAP regulates intracellular ROS by enhancing antioxidant gene expression.
Authors: Resch U, Schichl YM, Sattler S, de Martin R
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2008;375(1):156-61. 2008
Inhibition of cadmium-induced oxidative injury in rat primary astrocytes by the addition of antioxidants and the reduction of intracellular calcium.
Authors: Yang CS, Tzou BC, Liu YP, Tsai MJ, Shyue SK, Tzeng SF
J. Cell. Biochem., 2008;103(3):825-34. 2008
Impaired response to oxidative stress in senescent cells may lead to accumulation of DNA damage in mesothelial cells from aged donors.
Authors: Ksiazek K, Piatek K, Witowski J
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2008;373(2):335-9. 2008
Antioxidant enzyme gene delivery to protect from HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis.
Authors: Agrawal L, Louboutin JP, Reyes BA, Van Bockstaele EJ, Strayer DS
Gene Ther., 2006;13(23):1645-56. 2006
Oxidized SOD1 alters proteasome activities in vitro and in the cortex of SOD1 overexpressing mice.
Authors: Le Pecheur M, Bourdon E, Paly E, Farout L, Friguet B, London J
FEBS Lett., 2005;579(17):3613-8. 2005
CyclinB1/Cdk1 phosphorylates mitochondrial antioxidant MnSOD in cell adaptive response to radiation stress.
Authors: Candas D, Fan M, Nantajit D, Vaughan A, Murley J, Woloschak G, Grdina D, Li J
J Mol Cell Biol, 0;5(3):166-75. 0
Genetic disruption of SOD1 gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs beta-cell function.
Authors: Muscogiuri G, Salmon A, Aguayo-Mazzucato C, Li M, Balas B, Guardado-Mendoza R, Giaccari A, Reddick R, Reyna S, Weir G, Defronzo R, Van Remmen H, Musi N
Diabetes, 0;62(12):4201-7. 0
Protective activity of a novel resveratrol analogue, HS-1793, against DNA damage in 137Cs-irradiated CHO-K1 cells.
Authors: Jeong M, Yang K, Jeong D, Lee C, Oh S, Jeong S, Lee K, Jo Y, Jo W
J Radiat Res, 0;55(3):464-75. 0
Oleanolic acid from antifilarial triterpene saponins of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.
Authors: Senathilake K, Karunanayake E, Samarakoon S, Tennekoon K, de Silva E, Adhikari A
Exp Parasitol, 0;177(0):13-21. 0
Rosiglitazone causes cardiotoxicity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent mitochondrial oxidative stress in mouse hearts.
Authors: He H, Tao H, Xiong H, Duan S, McGowan F, Mortensen R, Balschi J
Toxicol Sci, 0;138(2):468-81. 0
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