The inflammatory response is an early, non-specific immune reaction to tissue damage or pathogen invasion. Inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by increased glial activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration, blood-brain-barrier permeability, and leukocyte invasion. One key player that is believed to drive this neuroinflammatory process is interleukin (IL)-1 beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurodegenerative disorders. IL-1 beta signals through the type I IL-1 receptor/IL-1 accessory protein complex, leading to NFkB-dependent transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-6, and interferons) and neutrophil-recruiting chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2) in glia.