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Neuroinflammation, defined as an inflammatory reaction within nervous tissue, arises as a mechanism to protect the brain and spinal cord against potential harm from a variety of toxic stimuli including protein aggregates, neuronal injury, and infection. It is a complex response that involves activation of glial cells, secretion of inflammatory mediators, and production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It is a highly controlled event that tends to be quickly resolved. However, continued exposure to a harmful stimulus can lead to chronic neuroinflammation, which is characterized by the persistent activation of glial cells, sustained release of inflammatory mediators, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, and increased migration of peripheral immune cells into the central nervous system. These events establish a feedback loop that perpetuates and prolongs neuroinflammation. In recent years, research has shown that a sustained inflammatory response can contribute to the development and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders. R&D Systems offers an unparalleled selection of high-quality solutions for investigating all aspects of neuroinflammation.