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Neuroinflammatory Factors

Cytokines and chemokines are secreted signaling molecules that are essential for maintaining homeostasis of the immune system and regulating immune responses throughout the body. Cytokines have many roles in immune system functioning and are typically classified as having either pro- or anti-inflammatory actions. Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that are involved in leukocyte trafficking, recruitment, and activation. In the central nervous system, cytokines and chemokines are secreted from multiple cell types, including microglia, astrocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, neurons, and peripheral immune cells, upon stimulation by pathogens, abnormal cells, or protein aggregates. The primary purpose of the initial inflammatory response is to remove the harmful stimulus, repair damaged tissue, and restore homeostasis. However, prolonged stimulation can lead to uncontrolled and continual release of inflammatory factors, which causes a chronic neuroinflammatory state. R&D Systems offers a range of research tools needed for investigating the role of these different factors in neuroinflammation.