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Transcriptional Co-Activators

Transcriptional activation is dependent on interactions between transcription factors and co-activators. Transcriptional co-activators are unable to directly bind DNA and instead exert their effect indirectly by binding to transcription factors and increasing their activity. Transcriptional co-activators can increase the activity of transcription factors by two general mechanisms, including increasing the DNA binding activity of transcription factors and by recruiting chromatin modifying enzymes that promote transcriptional activation. Additionally, transcriptional co-activators can stimulate transcription by stabilizing the RNA polymerase holoenzyme.