Glycinergic neurons utilize the amino acid glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brainstem and spinal cord. Binding of glycine to its receptors opens Cl- channels, allowing for influx of Cl- and hyperpolarization. However, glycine has also been shown to have excitatory effects. It acts as a glutamate co-agonist and is required for NMDA receptor activity.
VIAAT in Human Brain.
The Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter (VIAAT), also called SLC32A1, was detected in immersion-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human brain using a Sheep Anti-Human VIAAT/SLC32A1 Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # AF6847
). Before incubation with the primary antibody, the tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (R&D Systems, Catalog # CTS013
). The tissue was stained using the Anti-Sheep HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (R&D Systems, Catalog # CTS019
; brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to neuronal processes.