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Immune Cells

Immune cells are frequently identified based on the expression of cell surface and intracellular markers. Explore this section of our interactive resource tool to view the markers that are most commonly used in the scientific literature to distinguish different immune cell types or cell type-specific subsets.

B Cells

B cells develop through an ordered progression of stages that produce multiple functionally distinct subtypes including follicular B cells, marginal zone B cells, memory B cells, and plasma cells. Each of these subtypes plays a unique role in the antibody-mediated immune response.

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Follicular B Cell Markers

Marginal Zone B Cell Markers

Memory B Cell Markers

Plasma Cell Markers

Regulatory B Cell Markers

Dendritic Cells

Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells that promote effector T cell differentiation and activation. They are categorized as either classical, plasmacytoid, or inflammatory dendritic cells based on their developmental origins, phenotypic markers, and functions.

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Classical Dendritic Cell - Common Markers

Human Tissue-specific Dendritic Cell Subset Markers

Inflammatory Dendritic Cell Markers

Mouse Tissue-specific Dendritic Cell Subset Markers

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Markers

Granulocytes

Granulocytes are white blood cells with multilobed nuclei and cytoplasmic granules containing enzymes and inflammatory mediators that are released in response to specific microbes and allergens. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells are all categorized as granulocytes.

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Basophil Cell Markers

Eosinophil Cell Markers

Mast Cell Markers

Neutrophil Cell Markers

Helper T Cells

CD4+ helper T cells play an integral role in the adaptive immune response initiated against invading microbial pathogens. Multiple phenotypically distinct subsets of these cells have been identified that secrete specific combinations of cytokines to differentially regulate the immune response.

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Follicular Helper T Cell Markers

Th1 Cell Markers

Th17 Cell Markers

Th2 Cell Markers

Th22 Cell Markers

Th9 Cell Markers

Innate Lymphoid Cells

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of innate immune cells that play a central role in regulating immune responses at epithelial barriers such as the skin, lungs, and intestine. Multiple subsets of ILCs have been characterized that are phenotypically and functionally distinct.

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ILC1 Cell Markers

ILC2 Cell Markers

LTi Cell Markers

NCR+ ILC3 Cell Markers

NCR- ILC3 Cell Markers

Natural Killer Cell Markers

Regulatory Innate Lymphoid Cell (ILCreg) Markers

Macrophages

Macrophages are specialized phagocytes that contribute to both host defense and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Their phenotypes and functions are largely determined based on their tissue of residence and signals received from their surrounding microenvironments.

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Macrophage - Common Markers

Macrophage Activation State Markers

Monocytes

Monocytes are professional phagocytes that regulate host defense and inflammation and have the potential to differentiate into inflammatory macrophages or dendritic cells. Based on distinct phenotypes and functions, at least two monocyte subsets have been identified in mice and humans.

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Human Classical Monocyte/Mouse Ly-6C+ Monocyte Cell Markers

Human Intermediate Monocyte Cell Markers

Human Non-Classical Monocyte/Mouse Ly-6C- Monocyte Cell Markers

Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are an immature population of myeloid cells with immunosuppressive properties that accumulate under chronic inflammatory conditions. Two subsets of MDSCs, polymorphonuclear MDSCs and monocytic MDSCs, have been identified in mice and humans.

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Granulocytic/PMN Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Markers

Monocytic Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Markers

Regulatory T Cell

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a heterogeneous population of CD4+ T cells that are required for the maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of excessive inflammation. Tregs function by suppressing the activities of effector T cells, natural killer cells, and antigen-presenting cells.

Regulatory T Cell Markers