B cells develop through an ordered progression of stages that produce multiple functionally distinct subtypes including follicular B cells, marginal zone B cells, memory B cells, and plasma cells. Each of these subtypes plays a unique role in the antibody-mediated immune response.
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Follicular B Cell Markers
Marginal Zone B Cell Markers
Memory B Cell Markers
Plasma Cell Markers
Regulatory B Cell Markers
Dendritic cells are professional antigen-presenting cells that promote effector T cell differentiation and activation. They are categorized as either classical, plasmacytoid, or inflammatory dendritic cells based on their developmental origins, phenotypic markers, and functions.
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Classical Dendritic Cell - Common Markers
Human Tissue-specific Dendritic Cell Subset Markers
Inflammatory Dendritic Cell Markers
Mouse Tissue-specific Dendritic Cell Subset Markers
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Markers
Granulocytes are white blood cells with multilobed nuclei and cytoplasmic granules containing enzymes and inflammatory mediators that are released in response to specific microbes and allergens. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells are all categorized as granulocytes.
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Basophil Cell Markers
Eosinophil Cell Markers
Mast Cell Markers
Neutrophil Cell Markers
Helper T Cells
CD4+ helper T cells play an integral role in the adaptive immune response initiated against invading microbial pathogens. Multiple phenotypically distinct subsets of these cells have been identified that secrete specific combinations of cytokines to differentially regulate the immune response.
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Follicular Helper T Cell Markers
Th1 Cell Markers
Th17 Cell Markers
Th2 Cell Markers
Th22 Cell Markers
Th9 Cell Markers
Innate Lymphoid Cells
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of innate immune cells that play a central role in regulating immune responses at epithelial barriers such as the skin, lungs, and intestine. Multiple subsets of ILCs have been characterized that are phenotypically and functionally distinct.
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ILC1 Cell Markers
ILC2 Cell Markers
LTi Cell Markers
NCR+ ILC3 Cell Markers
NCR- ILC3 Cell Markers
Natural Killer Cell Markers
Regulatory Innate Lymphoid Cell (ILCreg) Markers
Macrophages are specialized phagocytes that contribute to both host defense and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Their phenotypes and functions are largely determined based on their tissue of residence and signals received from their surrounding microenvironments.
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Macrophage - Common Markers
Macrophage Activation State Markers
Monocytes are professional phagocytes that regulate host defense and inflammation and have the potential to differentiate into inflammatory macrophages or dendritic cells. Based on distinct phenotypes and functions, at least two monocyte subsets have been identified in mice and humans.
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Human Classical Monocyte/Mouse Ly-6C+ Monocyte Cell Markers
Human Intermediate Monocyte Cell Markers
Human Non-Classical Monocyte/Mouse Ly-6C- Monocyte Cell Markers
Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are an immature population of myeloid cells with immunosuppressive properties that accumulate under chronic inflammatory conditions. Two subsets of MDSCs, polymorphonuclear MDSCs and monocytic MDSCs, have been identified in mice and humans.
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Granulocytic/PMN Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Markers
Monocytic Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cell (MDSC) Markers
Regulatory T Cell
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a heterogeneous population of CD4+ T cells that are required for the maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of excessive inflammation. Tregs function by suppressing the activities of effector T cells, natural killer cells, and antigen-presenting cells.
Regulatory T Cell Markers