Oligodendrocytes are the glial cells responsible for producing the myelin sheath that insulates neuronal axons in the central nervous systems (CNS). They arise from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), also called oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, polydendrocytes, or O-2A cells, which can also differentiate into neurons and astrocytes depending on the brain area and stage of CNS development. During development, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are generated in successive waves from several germinal regions. In the adult brain, oligodendrocytes arise mainly from parenchymal OPCs and OPCs from the subventricular zone. The formation of oligodendrocytes from OPCs can be divided into four complex and precisely timed stages of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and myelination. The cells present at each stage can be identified using a panel of cellular markers.
Oligodendrocyte Marker O4 in Differentiated Rat Cortical Stem Cells.
Oligodendrocyte Marker O4 was detected in immersion-fixed rat cortical stem cells, which were differentiated in vitro
for 7 days, using a Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat Oligodendrocyte Marker O4 Monoclonal Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # MAB1326
). Cells were stained (red) and counterstained with DAPI (blue).
CNPase in Cultured Oligodendrocytes.
CNPase was detected in immersion-fixed neuron-glial cell cultures using a Rabbit Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat CNPase Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (Novus Biologicals, Catalog # NBP2-50058
). Cells were stained (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes were also labeled in the cultures using a Mouse Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat GFAP Monoclonal Antibody (Novus Biologicals, Catalog # NBP1-05197
MAG in Rat Brain.
Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG), also known as Siglec-4a, was detected in perfusion-fixed frozen sections of rat brain (cerebellum) using a Goat Anti-Rat MAG/Siglec-4a Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog # AF538
). The tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (R&D Systems, Catalog # CTS008
; brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific labeling was localized to processes of oligodendrocytes.