There are many peptide hormones that directly regulate cardiovascular tissues. Within this group, there are multiple examples of overlapping functions and cross-regulation of one peptide system by another. A given peptide may also exert opposing functions through several of its receptors or through the same receptor expressed in different tissues. The family of vasoactive peptides is large and includes Adrenomedullin, Apelin, Bradykinin, Endothelin, GLP-1, IGF-I, Insulin, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, CNP), Oxytocin, Urotensin II, Vasopressin, and VIP. A short list of these peptide’s cardiovascular functions includes positive or negative muscle effects on heart rate, contractility, and remodeling, vascular constriction and permeability, angiogenesis, and proliferation of cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. These peptides additionally regulate several functions in the kidney including natriuresis, diuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and podocyte loss. They also regulate a wide range of processes that have cardiovascular consequences such as fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, sympathetic nervous system activity, salt sensitivity, and insulin sensitivity.