Biological ActivityApamin is a prototypical potent and highly selective inhibitor of the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel (KCa2, SK). Blocks medium after-hyperpolarization in vitro and is brain penetrant and convulsive in vivo.
(Modifications: Disulfide bridges: 1-11, 3-15, His-18 = C-terminal amide)
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Matching molecules to function: neuronal Ca2+-activated K+ channels and afterhyperpolarizations.
Stocker et al.
Potassium channel toxins.
Behavioral effects of apamin, a selective inhibitor of the SKCa-channel, in mice and rats.
van der Staay et al.
Citations for Apamin
The citations listed below are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Apamin include:
23 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
TRPM4 Conductances in Thalamic Reticular Nucleus Neurons Generate Persistent Firing during Slow Oscillations.
Authors: O'Malley Et al.
J Neurosci 2020;40:4813
Functional Coupling of Cav2.3 and BK Potassium Channels Regulates Action Potential Repolarization and Short-Term Plasticity in the Mouse Hippocampus.
Authors: Gutzmann Et al.
Front Cell Neurosci 2019;13:27
Activation of TREK currents by riluzole in three subgroups of cultured mouse nodose ganglion neurons.
Authors: Fernandez-Fernandez Et al.
PLoS One 2018;13:e0199282
Bidirectional Modulation of Intrinsic Excitability in Rat Prelimbic Cortex Neuronal Ensembles and Non-Ensembles after Operant Learning.
Authors: Whitaker Et al.
J Neurosci 2017;37:8845
Chronic social isolation reduces 5-HT neuronal activity via upregulated SK3 calcium-activated potassium channels
Authors: Sargin Et al.
Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces stress-induced affective pathology.
Authors: Gamble-George Et al.
Cell type-specific transcriptomics of hypothalamic energy-sensing neuron responses to weight-loss.
Authors: Henry Et al.
Mol Pain 2015;4
Increased Basolateral Amygdala Pyramidal Cell Excitability May Contribute to the Anxiogenic Phenotype Induced by Chronic Early-Life Stress.
Authors: Rau Et al.
Heart Rhythm 2015;35:9730
Re-Emergent Inhibition of Cochlear Inner Hair Cells in a Mouse Model of Hearing Loss.
Authors: Zachary and Fuchs
J Neurosci 2015;35:9701
The role of K+ conductances in regulating membrane excitability in human gastric corpus smooth muscle.
Authors: Lee Et al.
FASEB J 2015;308:G625
Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels in the amygdala mediate pain-inhibiting effects of clinically available R.zole in a rat model of arthritis pain.
Authors: Thompson Et al.
J Neurosci 2015;11:51
Apamin does not inhibit human cardiac Na+ current, L-type Ca2+ current or other major K+ currents.
Authors: Yu Et al.
J Neurosci 2014;9:e96691
Amiodarone inhibits apamin-sensitive potassium currents.
Authors: Turker Et al.
PLoS One 2013;8:e70450
Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons.
Authors: Alpert and Alford
PLoS One 2013;8:e63154
Proarrhythmic effect of blocking the small conductance calcium activated potassium channel in isolated canine left atrium.
Authors: Hsueh Et al.
Asynchronous Ca2+ current conducted by voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV)-2.1 and CaV2.2 channels and its implications for asynchronous neurotransmitter release.
Authors: Few Et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:E452
Dynamic interplay of excitatory and inhibitory coupling modes of neuronal L-type calcium channels.
Authors: Geier Et al.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2011;300:C937
Relaxin causes selective outward remodeling of brain parenchymal arterioles via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.
Authors: Chan and Cipolla
Sci Rep 2011;25:3229
Postnatal expression of an apamin-sensitive k(ca) current in vestibular calyx terminals.
Authors: Meredith Et al.
J Membr Biol 2011;244:81
NE causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+.
Authors: Zemkova Et al.
Visinin-like neuronal calcium sensor proteins regulate the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current in the rat cerebral cortex.
Authors: Villalobos and Andrade
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010;30:14361
Allosteric block of KCa2 channels by apamin.
Authors: Lamy Et al.
J Neurosci 2010;285:27067
DArgic modulation of spinal neuronal excitability.
Authors: Han Et al.
J Biol Chem 2007;27:13192
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