Cell Proliferation Induced by GM‑CSF and Neutralization by Canine GM‑CSF Antibody. |
Recombinant Canine GM‑CSF (Catalog # 1546-GM) stimulates proliferation in the TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Canine GM‑CSF (15 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Canine GM‑CSF Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1546). The ND50 is typically 2-8 µg/mL.
|GM‑CSF in Canine PBMCs. GM‑CSF was detected in immersion fixed canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with Calcium Ionomycin and PMA using Goat Anti-Canine GM‑CSF Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1546) at 15 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.|
GM-CSF was initially characterized as a factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. It is also a growth factor for erythroid, megakaryocyte, and eosinophil progenitors. GM-CSF is produced by a number of different cell types (including T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and adipocytes) in response to cytokine or inflammatory stimuli. On mature hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and eosinophils (1, 2). GM-CSF promotes a Th1 biased immune response, angiogenesis, allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity (3-5). It shows clinical effectiveness in ameliorating chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and GM-CSF transfected tumor cells are utilized as cancer vaccines (6, 7). The 22 kDa glycosylated GM-CSF, similar to IL-3 and IL-5, is a cytokine with a core of four bundled alpha ‑helices (8-10). Mature canine GM-CSF shares 49-57% amino acid sequence identity with mouse and rat GM-CSF and 69-72% with feline, human, and porcine GM‑CSF. GM-CSF exerts its biological effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of GM-CSF R alpha /CD116 and the signal transducing common beta chain (CD131) which is also a component of the high-affinity receptors for IL-3 and IL-5 (11, 12). In addition, GM‑CSF binds a naturally occurring soluble form of GM‑CSF R alpha (13). The activity of GM‑CSF is species specific between human and mouse, although human GM‑CSF is active on canine cells (14, 15).
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Showing Results 1 - 2 of 2
Filter your results:
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.
The document you requested is not available online. Please enter the Catalog Number and Lot Number below to have a document emailed to you at the address provided