Human CTLA-4 APC-conjugated Antibody Summary
Accession # Q6GR94
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Detection of CTLA‑4 in NS0 Mouse Cell Line Transfected with Human CTLA-4 and eGFP by Flow Cytometry. NS0 mouse myeloma cell line transfected with human CTLA-4 and eGFP was stained with either (A) Goat Anti-Human CTLA‑4 APC‑conjugated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB386A) or (B) Normal Goat IgG Allophycocyanin Control (Catalog # IC108A). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, 2 to 8 °C as supplied.
CTLA-4 and CD28, together with their ligands B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T- and B-cell responses. CTLA-4 and CD28 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CTLA-4 and CD28 are composed of a single Ig V‑like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CTLA-4 and CD28 are both expressed on the cell surface as disulfide-linked homodimers or as monomers. The genes encoding these two molecules are closely linked on human chromosome 2. CTLA-4 was originally identified as a gene that was specifically expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, CTLA-4 transcripts have since been found in both Th1 and Th2, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Whereas CD28 expression is constitutive on the surfaces of 95% of CD4+ T cells and 50% of CD8+ T cells and is down regulated upon T cell activation, CTLA-4 expression is upregulated rapidly following T cell activation and peaks approximately 24 hours following activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with 20‑100‑fold higher affinity than CD28. The physiological role of CTLA-4 in T cell costimulation is currently being studied.
- Lenschow, D.J. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233.
- Hathcock, K.S. and R.J. Hodes (1996) Advances in Immunol. 62:131.
- Ward, S.G. (1996) Biochem. J. 318:361.
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