Human CTLA-4 Biotinylated Antibody
Human CTLA-4 Biotinylated Antibody Summary
Accession # Q6GR94
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Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
CTLA-4 and CD28, together with their ligands B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T- and B-cell responses. CTLA-4 and CD28 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CTLA-4 and CD28 are composed of a single Ig V‑like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CTLA-4 and CD28 are both expressed on the cell surface as disulfide-linked homodimers or as monomers. The genes encoding these two molecules are closely linked on human chromosome 2. CTLA-4 was originally identified as a gene that was specifically expressed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, CTLA-4 transcripts have since been found in both Th1 and Th2, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones. Whereas CD28 expression is constitutive on the surfaces of 95% of CD4+ T cells and 50% of CD8+ T cells and is down regulated upon T cell activation, CTLA-4 expression is upregulated rapidly following T cell activation and peaks approximately 24 hours following activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with 20 - 100-fold higher affinity than CD28. The physiological role of CTLA-4 in T cell costimulation is currently being studied.
- Lenschow, D.J. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233.
- Hathcock, K.S. and R.J. Hodes (1996) Advances in Immunol. 62:131.
- Ward, S.G. (1996) Biochem. J. 318:361.
Citation for Human CTLA-4 Biotinylated Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1
The soluble forms of CD28, CD86 and CTLA-4 constitute possible immunological markers in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Authors: Sakthivel P, Shively V, Kakoulidou M
J. Intern. Med., 2007;261(4):399-407.
Sample Types: Plasma
Applications: ELISA Development
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