Human Cytochrome c Quantikine ELISA Kit

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Human Cytochrome c ELISA Standard Curve
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Product Details
Citations (31)
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Human Cytochrome c Quantikine ELISA Kit Summary

Assay Type
Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
96-well strip plate
Assay Length
4.5 hours
Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
Cell Lysates (20 uL), Subcellular Fractions (100 uL)
0.31 ng/mL
Assay Range
0.6 - 20 ng/mL (Cell Lysates, Subcellular Fractions)
Natural human Cytochrome c
< 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
Interference observed with other substances.

Product Summary

The Quantikine Human Cytochrome c Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human cytochrome c in cell lysates.


Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision

Cell Lysates, Subcellular Fractions

Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Sample 1 2 3 1 2 3
n 20 20 20 40 40 40
Mean (pg/mL) 3.64 7.31 10.7 3.54 6.74 10.2
Standard Deviation 0.15 0.3 0.42 0.18 0.34 0.51
CV% 4.1 4.1 3.9 5.1 5 5


To assess the linearity of the assay, six cell lysates containing high concentrations of Cytochrome c were diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human Cytochrome c ELISA Linearity

Scientific Data

Human Cytochrome c ELISA Standard Curve

Product Datasheets

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Preparation and Storage

The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below.
Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.

Background: Cytochrome c

Cytochrome c is a small, highly conserved, heme-containing protein involved in mitochondrial electron transport. Cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria in response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and serves as a cofactor in initiating the activation of the APAF-1/Caspase-9 complex. The effect of specific proteins and/or small molecules on the initiation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway can be evaluated in an in vitro system of isolated mitochondria by monitoring the release of cytochrome c.

Entrez Gene IDs:
54205 (Human)
Alternate Names:
CYCHCS; CYCS; Cytochrome c; cytochrome c, somatic; THC4
⚠ WARNING: This product can expose you to chemicals including N,N-Dimethylforamide, which is known to the State of California to cause cancer. For more information, go to

Assay Procedure

Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
  1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
  2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

  3. 100 µL Calibrator Diluent
  4.   Add 100 µL of Calibrator Diluent to each well.

  5. 100 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
  6.   Add 100 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
  7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

  8. 200 µL Conjugate
  9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
  10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

  11. 200 µL Substrate Solution
  12.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

  13. 50 µL Stop Solution
  14.   Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

Citations for Human Cytochrome c Quantikine ELISA Kit

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

31 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. From Differential DNA Methylation in COPD to Mitochondria: Regulation of AHRR Expression Affects Airway Epithelial Response to Cigarette Smoke
    Authors: Q Chen, KO Nwozor, M van den Be, DJ Slebos, A Faiz, MR Jonker, HM Boezen, IH Heijink, M de Vries
    Cells, 2022;11(21):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  2. NSP4 and ORF9b of SARS-CoV-2 Induce Pro-Inflammatory Mitochondrial DNA Release in Inner Membrane-Derived Vesicles
    Authors: MI Faizan, R Chaudhuri, S Sagar, S Albogami, N Chaudhary, I Azmi, A Akhtar, SM Ali, R Kumar, J Iqbal, MC Joshi, G Kharya, P Seth, SS Roy, T Ahmad
    Cells, 2022;11(19):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Plasma
  3. Naringenin ameliorates homocysteine induced endothelial damage via the AMPKalpha/Sirt1 pathway
    Authors: H Li, L Liu, Z Cao, W Li, R Liu, Y Chen, C Li, Y Song, G Liu, J Hu, Z Liu, C Lu, Y Liu
    Journal of advanced research, 2021;34(0):137-147.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  4. Growth Inhibitory Effects of Ester Derivatives of Menahydroquinone-4, the Reduced Form of Vitamin K2(20), on All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Resistant HL60 Cell Line
    Authors: H Yamakawa, S Setoguchi, S Goto, D Watase, K Terada, N Nagata-Aka, E Toki, M Koga, K Matsunaga, Y Karube, J Takata
    Pharmaceutics, 2021;13(5):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  5. Reproducible Large-Scale Isolation of Exosomes from Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Their Application in Acute Kidney Injury
    Authors: JH Lee, DH Ha, HK Go, J Youn, HK Kim, RC Jin, RB Miller, DH Kim, BS Cho, YW Yi
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020;21(13):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  6. Effects of Serum Cytochrome c on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
    Authors: C Tang, J Hou, G Yan, Y Qiao, D Wang, B Zhu, B Liu, E Luo, AQ Nawabi, L Chen
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019(0):9357203.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  7. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor regulates mitochondrial dynamics and cell growth of human cancer cell lines through CD74-NF?B signaling
    Authors: R De, S Sarkar, S Mazumder, S Debsharma, AA Siddiqui, SJ Saha, C Banerjee, S Nag, D Saha, S Pramanik, U Bandyopadh
    J. Biol. Chem., 2018;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Extracts
  8. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Circulating Cytochrome c in Acute Myocardial Infarction
    Authors: Antonio L Bartorelli
    Circ. Res., 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Serum
  9. Anti-Cancer Effect of Cap-Translation Inhibitor 4EGI-1 in Human Glioma U87 Cells: Involvement of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and ER Stress
    Authors: Ming Wu
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem, 2016;40(5):1013-1028.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  10. Critical Role of the Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) in the Pathogenic Action of Antimitochondrial Autoantibodies Synergizing with Anti-desmoglein Autoantibodies in Pemphigus Vulgaris.
    Authors: Chen Y, Chernyavsky A, Webber R, Grando S, Wang P
    J Biol Chem, 2015;290(39):23826-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  11. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
    Authors: Abdullah A, Mohammed A, Rasedee A, Mirghani M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015;16(2):3528-36.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  12. Cytokine and nitric oxide levels in patients with sepsis--temporal evolvement and relation to platelet mitochondrial respiratory function.
    Authors: Sjovall F, Morota S, Asander Frostner E, Hansson M, Elmer E
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(5):e97673.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  13. Antagonizing effects and mechanisms of afzelin against UVB-induced cell damage.
    Authors: Shin S, Jung E, Kim S, Kim J, Kim E, Lee J, Park D
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61971.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  14. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reverses renal glomerular but not tubular abnormalities in excessively obese diabetics.
    Authors: Saliba J, Kasim NR, Tamboli RA, Isbell JM, Marks P, Feurer ID, Ikizler A, Abumrad NN
    Surgery, 2010;147(2):282-7.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Urine
  15. Antimitochondrial autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris: a missing link in disease pathophysiology.
    Authors: Marchenko S, Chernyavsky AI, Arredondo J, Gindi V, Grando SA
    J. Biol. Chem., 2010;285(6):3695-704.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  16. Aurora kinase A is a target of Wnt/beta-catenin involved in multiple myeloma disease progression.
    Authors: Dutta-Simmons J, Zhang Y, Gorgun G, Gatt M, Mani M, Hideshima T, Takada K, Carlson NE, Carrasco DE, Tai YT, Raje N, Letai AG, Anderson KC, Carrasco DR
    Blood, 2009;114(13):2699-708.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  17. Apolipoprotein-J prevention of fetal cardiac myoblast apoptosis induced by ethanol.
    Authors: Li Y, Sagar MB, Wassler M, Shelat H, Geng YJ
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2007;357(1):157-61.
    Species: Canine
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  18. Proton pump inhibitors induce apoptosis of human B-cell tumors through a caspase-independent mechanism involving reactive oxygen species.
    Authors: De Milito A, Iessi E, Logozzi M, Lozupone F, Spada M, Marino ML, Federici C, Perdicchio M, Matarrese P, Lugini L, Nilsson A, Fais S
    Cancer Res., 2007;67(11):5408-17.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  19. Mitochondrial-targeted active Akt protects SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell death.
    Authors: Mookherjee P, Quintanilla R, Roh MS, Zmijewska AA, Jope RS, Johnson GV
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2007;102(1):196-210.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  20. Glycyrrhizin protection against 3-morpholinosydnonime-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in lung epithelial cells.
    Authors: Lee CS, Kim YJ, Han ES
    Life Sci., 2007;80(19):1759-67.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  21. The apoptosis effect of hispolon from Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis) Teng on human epidermoid KB cells.
    Authors: Chen W, He FY, Li YQ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2006;105(1):280-5.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  22. Hierarchical regulation of mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis by BCL-2 subfamilies.
    Authors: Kim H, Rafiuddin-Shah M, Tu HC, Jeffers JR, Zambetti GP, Hsieh JJ, Cheng EH
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2006;8(12):1348-58.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  23. Beauvericin induces cytotoxic effects in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation: the causative role of calcium.
    Authors: Jow GM, Chou CJ, Chen BF, Tsai JH
    Cancer Lett., 2004;216(2):165-73.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  24. Differential response of MG132 cytotoxicity against small cell lung cancer cells to changes in cellular GSH contents.
    Authors: Bang JH, Han ES, Lim I
    Biochem. Pharmacol., 2004;68(4):659-66.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  25. Ebselen inhibits p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated endothelial cell death by hydrogen peroxide.
    Authors: Ali N, Yoshizumi M, Tsuchiya K, Kyaw M, Fujita Y, Izawa Y, Abe S, Kanematsu Y, Kagami S, Tamaki T
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2004;485(1):127-35.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  26. The mitochondria-regulated death pathway mediates asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis.
    Authors: Panduri V, 107352, Weitzman SA, Chandel N, Kamp DW
    Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2003;28(2):241-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  27. Bcl-2 phosphorylation and proteasome-dependent degradation induced by paclitaxel treatment: consequences on sensitivity of isolated mitochondria to Bid.
    Authors: Brichese L, Barboule N, Heliez C, Valette A
    Exp. Cell Res., 2002;278(1):101-11.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  28. Release of intact, monomeric cytochrome c from apoptotic and necrotic cells.
    Authors: Jemmerson R, LaPlante B, Treeful A
    Cell Death Differ., 2002;9(5):538-48.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Culture Supernates
  29. Epithelial cells infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumoniae) are resistant to apoptosis.
    Authors: Rajalingam K, Al-Younes H, Muller A, Meyer TF, Szczepek AJ, Rudel T
    Infect. Immun., 2001;69(12):7880-8.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  30. Fas-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma requires mitochondrial activation and is inhibited by FLICE inhibitor protein and Bcl-2.
    Authors: Poulaki V, Mitsiades N, Romero ME, Tsokos M
    Cancer Res., 2001;61(12):4864-72.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
  31. Caspases as key executors of methyl selenium-induced apoptosis (anoikis) of DU-145 prostate cancer cells.
    Authors: Jiang C, Wang Z, Ganther H, Lu J
    Cancer Res., 2001;61(7):3062-70.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates


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