Human Dkk-3 Antibody

(8 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human Dkk-3 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, approximately 35% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse Dkk-3 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human Dkk-3
    Ala22-Ile350
    Accession # Q9UBP4
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    1 µg/mL
    See below
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    Immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human lung
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Human Dkk‑3 by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Dkk‑3 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1118) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF019). A specific band was detected for Dkk‑3 at approximately 38 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Dkk-3

Dkk-3, also known as REIC (Reduced Expansion in Immortalized Cells), is one of four numbered members of the Dickkopf family of Wnt antagonists (1). Dkk-3 is a secreted monomer expressed in many normal human tissues, most strongly in heart, brain and spinal cord (1, 2), and during early embryonic development in the mouse (3). N-glycosylation at up to four sites preceding or between two conserved cysteine-rich motifs results in expression of a 38 kDa glycoprotein (1, 4). The cysteine-rich motifs contain 10 cysteines each, with prokineticin and colipase families containing sequences similar to those of the second motif (1, 5). Human Dkk-3 shows 82%, 88%, 85%, and 53% amino acid (aa) identity with mouse, bovine, canine, and chick Dkk-3, respectively, and 37-45% aa identity with other human Dkk family members. Several lines of evidence implicate Dkk-3 as a negative growth regulator. Dkk-3 is downregulated in many tumors as compared to normal cells, sometimes by loss of heterozygosity (4, 6). Downregulation by CpG hypermethylation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is correlated with faster progression and shorter survival (7). Release of cultured cells from serum starvation results in downregulation of Dkk-3 in late G1 phase of the cell cycle (6). Over-expression of
Dkk‑3 results in tumor cell-line-specific growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice (2, 4, 6). The prototype Dickkopf member, Dkk-1, antagonizes Wnt family signaling by binding to Wnt receptors LRP5 and LRP6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins) and promoting their internalization (1, 9, 10). Results are less straightforward for Dkk-3, where some studies show binding to LRP5/6 while others do not. These effects appear to be dependent on the cells and conditions used (1, 6-10).

  • References:
    1. Krupnik, V.E. et al. (1999) Gene 238:301.
    2. Tsuji, T. et al. (2000) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 268:20.
    3. Kemp, C. et al. (2005) Dev. Dyn. 233:1064.
    4. Hsieh, S.-Y. et al. (2004) Oncogene 23:9183.
    5. Bullock, C.M. et al. (2004) Mol. Pharmacol. 65:582.
    6. Tsuji, T. et al. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 289:257.
    7. Roman-Gomez, J. et al. (2004) Br. J. Cancer 91:707.
    8. Hoang, B.H. et al. (2004) Cancer Res. 64:2734.
    9. Caricasole, A. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:37024.
    10. Mao, B. et al. (2001) Nature 411:321.
  • Long Name:
    Dickkopf-3
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    27122 (Human); 50781 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    dickkopf (Xenopus laevis) homolog 3; dickkopf 3; dickkopf homolog 3 (Xenopus laevis); Dickkopf-3; dickkopf-related protein 3; Dkk3; Dkk-3; hDkk-3; regulated in glioma; REIC; REICdkk-3; RIG; RIG-like 5-6; RIG-like 7-1
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

8 Citations: Showing 1 - 8
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Loss of Dickkopf 3 Promotes the Tumorigenesis of Basal Breast Cancer
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(7):e0160077.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. Automated Analysis and Classification of Histological Tissue Features by Multi-Dimensional Microscopic Molecular Profiling.
    Authors: Riordan D, Varma S, West R, Brown P
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0128975.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  3. Epigenetic silencing of the WNT antagonist Dickkopf 3 disrupts normal Wnt/beta-catenin signalling and apoptosis regulation in breast cancer cells.
    Authors: Xiang T, Li L, Yin X, Zhong L, Peng W, Qiu Z, Ren G, Tao Q
    J Cell Mol Med, 2013;17(10):1236-46.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  4. The clinicopathological significance of REIC expression in colorectal carcinomas.
    Authors: Wang W, Zhu W, Xu XY
    Histol. Histopathol., 2012;27(6):735-43.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    Application: WB
  5. Regulation of human skin pigmentation in situ by repetitive UV exposure: molecular characterization of responses to UVA and/or UVB.
    Authors: Choi W, Miyamura Y, Wolber R, Smuda C, Reinhold W, Liu H, Kolbe L, Hearing VJ
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2010;130(6):1685-96.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  6. The fibroblast-derived paracrine factor neuregulin-1 has a novel role in regulating the constitutive color and melanocyte function in human skin.
    Authors: Choi W, Wolber R, Gerwat W
    J. Cell. Sci., 2010;123(0):3102-11.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  7. Expression pattern of REIC/Dkk-3 in various cell types and the implications of the soluble form in prostatic acinar development.
    Authors: Zhang K, Watanabe M, Kashiwakura Y, Li SA, Edamura K, Huang P, Yamaguchi K, Nasu Y, Kobayashi Y, Sakaguchi M, Ochiai K, Yamada H, Takei K, Ueki H, Huh NH, Li M, Kaku H, Na Y, Kumon H
    Int. J. Oncol., 2010;37(6):1495-501.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  8. The Dickkopf-homolog 3 is expressed in tumor endothelial cells and supports capillary formation.
    Authors: Untergasser G, Steurer M, Zimmermann M, Hermann M, Kern J, Amberger A, Gastl G, Gunsilius E
    Int. J. Cancer, 2008;122(7):1539-47.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
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