Human GDF-11/BMP-11 Antibody

  
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human GDF‑11/BMP‑11 in direct ELISAs.
  • Source
    Monoclonal Mouse IgG2B Clone # 937320
  • Purification
    Protein A or G purified from hybridoma culture supernatant
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant human GDF‑11/BMP‑11
    Asn299-Ser407
    Accession # O95390
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Immunocytochemistry
    8-25 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunocytochemistry
GDF‑11/BMP‑11 in HEK293 Human Cell Line. GDF‑11/BMP‑11 was detected in immersion fixed HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line transfected with GDF-11 using Mouse Anti-Human GDF‑11/BMP‑11 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB19583) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL007) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Cells on Coverslips.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: GDF-11/BMP-11
Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF-11), also known as BMP-11, is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and is highly related to GDF-8. GDF-11 encodes a 407 amino acid (aa) prepropeptide which contains a signal sequence for secretion and an RXXR proteolytic processing site to yield a 109 aa residue carboxy-terminal mature protein (1). Mature GDF-11 contains the canonical 7-cysteine motif common to other TGF-beta superfamily members; however, like the TGF-beta s, Activins and GDF-8, GDF-11 also contains one extra pair of cysteine residues. At the amino acid sequence level, mature human, mouse, rat and chicken GDF-11 are 99-100% identical. GDF-11 and GDF-8 share 90% amino acid sequence identity within the mature protein. As detected by in situ hybridization, GDF-11 is expressed in diverse regions of the mouse embryo: tailbud, somitic precursors, limbs, mandibular and branchial arches, dorsal neural tube, odontoblasts, nasal epithelium, and particular regions of the brain (1, 2). Targeted deletion of GDF-11, in mice, results in a spectrum of abnormalities including palatal malformation, vertebral defects, elongated trunks with a reduced or absent tail, missing or malformed kidneys, and an increased number of neurons in the olfactory epithelium (2-5). GDF-11 signals through the Activin type II receptors and induces phosphorylation of Smad2 to mediate axial patterning (6). Systemic GDF-11 levels decline with age and administration of higher levels of GDF-11 can reverse age-related cardiac hypertrophy (7). In addition, systemic administration of recombinant GDF-11 protein restores genomic integrity and health of muscle stem cells, neurovasculature and enhances neurogenesis (8, 9).
  • References:
    1. Gamer, L.W. et al. (1999) Dev. Biol. 208: 222. 
    2. Nakashima, M. et al. (1999) Mech. Dev. 80:185.  
    3. Gad, J.M. and P.P.L. Tam (1999) Curr. Biol. 9:R783.  
    4. McPherron, A.C. et al. (1999) Nat. Genet. 22:260.
    5. Esquela, A.F. and S.J. Lee (2003) Dev. Biol. 257:356.
    6. Oh, S.P. et al. (2002) Genes & Dev. 16:274.
    7. Loffredo, F.S. et. al. (2013) Cell. 153.828.
    8. Katsimpardi, L. et. al. (2014) Science (ahead of print).
    9. Sinha, M. et. al. (2014) Science (ahead of print).
  • Long Name:
    Growth Differentiation Factor 11
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    10220 (Human)
  • Alternate Names:
    BMP-11; BMP-11BMP11Bone morphogenetic protein 11; GDF11; GDF-11; growth differentiation factor 11; growth/differentiation factor 11
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