• Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Assay Length
    3.5 hours or 4.5 hours
  • Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
    Cell Culture Supernates (100 uL), Serum (100 uL), EDTA Plasma (100 uL), Heparin Plasma (100 uL), Citrate Plasma (100 uL)
  • Sensitivity
    3 pg/mL
  • Assay Range
    7.8 - 500 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Citrate Plasma)
  • Specificity
    Natural and recombinant human GM-CSF
  • Cross-reactivity
    < 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.< 50% cross-species reactivity observed with species tested.
  • Interference
    No significant interference observed with available related molecules.
Control Available
QC01-1, Quantikine Immunoassay Control Group 1 - Please Inquire
Product Summary
The Quantikine Human GM-CSF Immunoassay is a 3.5 or 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure GM-CSF levels in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. It contains E. coli-expressed recombinant human GM-CSF and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. It has been shown to quantitate recombinant human GM-CSF accurately. Results obtained using natural human GM-CSF showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for natural GM-CSF.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Citrate Plasma
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation1.

Cell Culture Supernates
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation1.


The recovery of GM-CSF spiked to three different levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=5) 97 85-104
Citrate Plasma (n=5) 101 92-106
EDTA Plasma (n=5) 100 94-105
Heparin Plasma (n=5) 98 92-104
Serum (n=5) 98 93-103
To assess the linearity of the assay, five samples were spiked with high concentrations of GM-CSF in various matrices and diluted with the appropriate Calibrator Diluent to produce values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human GM-CSF Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: GM-CSF
GM-CSF (Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor) induces the development of monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and myeloid and dermal dendritic cells. It also acts as a neutrophil and dendritic cell chemoattractant. GM-CSF promotes Th1 and Th17 cell mediated autoimmune inflammation as well as the inflammatory activation of dendritic cells, microglia, alveolar macrophages, and eosinophils. In addition, it cooperates with G-CSF in promoting tumor cell proliferation and invasion. GM-CSF signals through a receptor complex composed of GM-CSF R alpha and the Common beta Chain (beta c) with Syndecan-2 as a potential co-receptor. The beta c subunit is shared by the receptor complexes for IL-3 and IL-5.
    • Long Name
      Granulocyte Macrophage Growth Factor
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      1437 (Human); 12981 (Mouse); 116630 (Rat); 397208 (Porcine); 403923 (Canine); 493805 (Feline);
    • Alternate Names
      colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage); Colony-stimulating factor; CSF; CSF2; GMCSF; GM-CSF; GMCSFgranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; MGC131935; MGC138897; molgramostin; sargramostim;
    Related Research Areas
    Assay Procedure
    Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

    Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
    1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
    2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

    3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
    4.   Add 100 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

    5. 100 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
    6.   Add 100 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
    7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

    8. 200 µL Conjugate
    9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well.
    10.   For Serum & Plasma Samples: Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
      For Cell Culture Supernate Samples: Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 1 hour.
    11.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

    12. 200 µL Substrate Solution
    13.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 20 minutes. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

    14. 50 µL Stop Solution
    15. Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    41 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
    Filter your results:

    Sample Type
    1. Overexpression of GLP-1 receptors suppresses proliferation and cytokine release by airway smooth muscle cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via activation of ABCA1
      Authors: YH Sun, L He, MY Yan, RQ Zhao, B Li, F Wang, Y Yang, HP Yu
      Mol Med Rep, 2017;0(0):.
    2. Adipose progenitor cell secretion of GM-CSF and MMP9 promotes a stromal and immunological microenvironment that supports breast cancer progression
      Authors: F Reggiani, V Labanca, P Mancuso, C Rabascio, G Talarico, S Orecchioni, A Manconi, F Bertolini
      Cancer Res., 2017;0(0):.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    3. Association between Placental Lesions, Cytokines and Angiogenic Factors in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia
      Authors: Ingrid C Weel
      PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0157584.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    4. Sphingosine 1 Phosphate at the Blood Brain Barrier: Can the Modulation of S1P Receptor 1 Influence the Response of Endothelial Cells and Astrocytes to Inflammatory Stimuli?
      Authors: Spampinato S, Obermeier B, Cotleur A, Love A, Takeshita Y, Sano Y, Kanda T, Ransohoff R
      PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0133392.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    5. Phase 1b Trial of Biweekly Intravenous Pexa-Vec (JX-594), an Oncolytic and Immunotherapeutic Vaccinia Virus in Colorectal Cancer.
      Authors: Park S, Breitbach C, Lee J, Park J, Lim H, Kang W, Moon A, Mun J, Sommermann E, Maruri Avidal L, Patt R, Pelusio A, Burke J, Hwang T, Kirn D, Park Y
      Mol Ther, 2015;23(9):1532-40.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    6. The Novel Receptor C5aR2 Is Required for C5a-Mediated Human Mast Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Proinflammatory Mediator Production.
      Authors: Pundir P, MacDonald C, Kulka M
      J Immunol, 2015;195(6):2774-87.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    7. Autophagy promotes radiation-induced senescence but inhibits bystander effects in human breast cancer cells.
      Authors: Huang, Yao-Huei, Yang, Pei-Ming, Chuah, Qiu-Yu, Lee, Yi-Jang, Hsieh, Yi-Fen, Peng, Chih-Wen, Chiu, Shu-Jun
      Autophagy, 2014;10(7):1212-28.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    8. The evolution of cellular deficiency in GATA2 mutation.
      Authors: Dickinson R, Milne P, Jardine L, Zandi S, Swierczek S, McGovern N, Cookson S, Ferozepurwalla Z, Langridge A, Pagan S, Gennery A, Heiskanen-Kosma T, Hamalainen S, Seppanen M, Helbert M, Tholouli E, Gambineri E, Reykdal S, Gottfreethsson M, Thaventhiran J, Morris E, Hirschfield G, Richter A, Jolles S, Bacon C, Hambleton S, Haniffa M, Bryceson Y, Allen C, Prchal J, Dick J, Bigley V, Collin M
      Blood, 2014;123(6):863-74.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    9. Prevention of F-actin assembly switches the response to SCF from chemotaxis to degranulation in human mast cells.
      Authors: Smrz D, Bandara G, Beaven M, Metcalfe D, Gilfillan A
      Eur J Immunol, 2013;43(7):1873-82.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    10. Reduced BMPR2 expression induces GM-CSF translation and macrophage recruitment in humans and mice to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.
      Authors: Sawada H, Saito T, Nickel N, Alastalo T, Glotzbach J, Chan R, Haghighat L, Fuchs G, Januszyk M, Cao A, Lai Y, Perez V, Kim Y, Wang L, Chen P, Spiekerkoetter E, Mitani Y, Gurtner G, Sarnow P, Rabinovitch M
      J Exp Med, 2013;211(2):263-80.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    11. Anti-inflammatory effects of methoxyphenolic compounds on human airway cells.
      Authors: Houser KR, Johnson DK, Ishmael FT
      J Inflamm (Lond), 2012;9(0):6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    12. p38MAPK is a novel DNA damage response-independent regulator of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype.
      Authors: Freund A, Patil CK, Campisi J
      EMBO J., 2011;30(8):1536-48.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    13. Shaping of iNKT cell repertoire after unrelated cord blood transplantation.
      Authors: Beziat V, Nguyen S, Exley M, Achour A, Simon T, Chevallier P, Sirvent A, Vigouroux S, Debre P, Rio B, Vieillard V, Lubrano-Berthelier C, Alatrakchi N
      Clin. Immunol., 2010;135(3):364-73.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    14. The implication of aberrant GM-CSF expression in decidual cells in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
      Authors: Huang SJ, Zenclussen AC, Chen CP, Basar M, Yang H, Arcuri F, Li M, Kocamaz E, Buchwalder L, Rahman M, Kayisli U, Schatz F, Toti P, Lockwood CJ
      Am. J. Pathol., 2010;177(5):2472-82.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    15. HLA-DR+ leukocytes acquire CD1 antigens in embryonic and fetal human skin and contain functional antigen-presenting cells.
      Authors: Schuster C, Vaculik C, Fiala C, Meindl S, Brandt O, Imhof M, Stingl G, Eppel W, Elbe-Burger A
      J. Exp. Med., 2009;206(1):169-81.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    16. HIV increases markers of cardiovascular risk: results from a randomized, treatment interruption trial.
      Authors: Calmy A, Gayet-Ageron A, Montecucco F, Nguyen A, Mach F, Burger F, Ubolyam S, Carr A, Ruxungtham K, Hirschel B, Ananworanich J,
      AIDS, 2009;23(8):929-39.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    17. Isolation and characterization of CD146+ multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.
      Authors: Sorrentino A, Ferracin M, Castelli G, Biffoni M, Tomaselli G, Baiocchi M, Fatica A, Negrini M, Peschle C, Valtieri M
      Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(8):1035-46.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    18. Assessment of cervicovaginal cytokine levels following exposure to microbicide Nisin gel in rabbits.
      Authors: Aranha CC, Gupta SM, Reddy KV
      Cytokine, 2008;43(1):63-70.
      Species: Rabbit
      Sample Type: Vaginal Lavage
    19. Infiltrated neutrophils acquire novel chemokine receptor expression and chemokine responsiveness in chronic inflammatory lung diseases.
      Authors: Hartl D, Krauss-Etschmann S, Koller B, Hordijk PL, Kuijpers TW, Hoffmann F, Hector A, Eber E, Marcos V, Bittmann I, Eickelberg O, Griese M, Roos D
      J. Immunol., 2008;181(11):8053-67.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: BALF
    20. Systemic responses after bronchial aspirin challenge in sensitive patients with asthma.
      Authors: Makowska JS, Grzegorczyk J, Bienkiewicz B, Wozniak M, Kowalski ML
      J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2007;121(2):348-54.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    21. cIAP-2 and survivin contribute to cytokine-mediated delayed eosinophil apoptosis.
      Authors: Vassina EM, Yousefi S, Simon D, Zwicky C, Conus S, Simon HU
      Eur. J. Immunol., 2006;36(7):1975-84.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    22. Mast cell beta-tryptase selectively cleaves eotaxin and RANTES and abrogates their eosinophil chemotactic activities.
      Authors: Pang L, Nie M, Corbett L, Sutcliffe A, Knox AJ
      J. Immunol., 2006;176(6):3788-95.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    23. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis undetected by tuberculin skin testing.
      Authors: Anderson ST, Williams AJ, Brown JR, Newton SM, Simsova M, Nicol MP, Sebo P, Levin M, Wilkinson RJ, Wilkinson KA
      Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2006;173(9):1038-42.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    24. Microvascular endothelial cells increase proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of native human acute myelogenous leukemia blasts.
      Authors: Hatfield K, Ryningen A, Corbascio M, Bruserud O
      Int. J. Cancer, 2006;119(10):2313-21.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    25. Modulation of GM-CSF release by enantiomers of beta-agonists in human airway smooth muscle.
      Authors: Ameredes BT, Calhoun WJ
      J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2005;116(1):65-72.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Whole Cells
    26. Secretory IgA induces antigen-independent eosinophil survival and cytokine production without inducing effector functions.
      Authors: Bartemes KR, Cooper KM, Drain KL, Kita H
      J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2005;116(4):827-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    27. Effect of ozone exposure on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic subjects.
      Authors: Chen LL, Tager IB, Peden DB, Christian DL, Ferrando RE, Welch BS, Balmes JR
      Chest, 2004;125(6):2328-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: BALF
    28. Presence of dendritic cells, MCP-1, and activated microglia/macrophages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord tissue.
      Authors: Henkel JS, Engelhardt JI, Siklos L, Simpson EP, Kim SH, Pan T, Goodman JC, Siddique T, Beers DR, Appel SH
      Ann. Neurol., 2004;55(2):221-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: CSF
    29. Specific recognition and killing of glioblastoma multiforme by interleukin 13-zetakine redirected cytolytic T cells.
      Authors: Kahlon KS, Brown C, Cooper LJ, Raubitschek A, Forman SJ, Jensen MC
      Cancer Res., 2004;64(24):9160-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    30. Autocrine type I IFN and contact with endothelium promote the presentation of influenza A virus by monocyte-derived APC.
      Authors: Qu C, Moran TM, Randolph GJ
      J. Immunol., 2003;170(2):1010-8.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    31. Regulation of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha-subunit on peripheral blood eosinophils from healthy subjects.
      Authors: Hellman C, Hallden G, Hylander B, Lundahl J
      Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2003;131(1):75-81.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Peritoneal Fluid
    32. Spontaneous circulation of myeloid-lymphoid-initiating cells and SCID-repopulating cells in sickle cell crisis.
      Authors: Lamming CE, Augustin L, Blackstad M, Lund TC, Hebbel RP, Verfaillie CM
      J. Clin. Invest., 2003;111(6):811-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    33. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) produced by mouse epidermal Langerhans cells is upregulated by TNF-alpha and IL-4 and downregulated by IFN-gamma.
      Authors: Xiao T, Fujita H, Saeki H, Mitsui H, Sugaya M, Tada Y, Kakinuma T, Torii H, Nakamura K, Asahina A, Tamaki K
      Cytokine, 2003;23(4):126-32.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    34. Local immunostimulation induced by intravesical administration of autologous interferon-gamma-activated macrophages in patients with superficial bladder cancer.
      Authors: Pages F, Lebel-Binay S, Vieillefond A, Deneux L, Cambillau M, Soubrane O, Debre B, Tardy D, Lemonne JL, Abastado JP, Fridman WH, Thiounn N
      Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2002;127(2):303-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Urine
    35. Retroviral interleukin 1alpha gene transfer in bone marrow stromal cells in a primate model: induction of myelopoiesis stimulation.
      Authors: de Revel T, Becard N, Sorg T, Rousseau S, Spano JP, Thiebot H, Methali M, Gras G, Le Grand R, Dormont D
      Br. J. Haematol., 2002;118(3):875-84.
      Species: Primate - Macaca fascicularis (Crab-eating Monkey or Cynomolgus Macaque)
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    36. Distinct hematopoietic support by two human stromal cell lines.
      Authors: Loeuillet C, Bernard G, Remy-Martin J, Saas P, Herve P, Douay L, Chalmers D
      Exp. Hematol., 2001;29(6):736-45.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    37. Bleomycin stimulates lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines to release eosinophil chemotactic activity.
      Authors: Sato E, Koyama S
      Eur. Respir. J., 2000;16(5):951-8.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    38. c-Jun and JunB antagonistically control cytokine-regulated mesenchymal-epidermal interaction in skin.
      Authors: Szabowski A, Maas-Szabowski N, Andrecht S, Kolbus A, Schorpp-Kistner M, Fusenig NE, Angel P
      Cell, 2000;103(5):745-55.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    39. Natural interferon alpha/beta-producing cells link innate and adaptive immunity.
      Authors: Kadowaki N, Antonenko S, Lau JY, Liu YJ
      J. Exp. Med., 2000;192(2):219-26.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    40. Serum levels of interleukins, growth factors and angiogenin in patients with endometrial cancer.
      Authors: Chopra V, Dinh TV, Hannigan EV
      J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 1997;123(3):167-72.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    41. High EMT Signature Score of Invasive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Cells Correlates with NFkappaB Driven Colony-Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF) Secretion by Neighboring Stromal Fibroblasts.
      Authors: Rudisch A, Dewhurst M, Horga L, Kramer N, Harrer N, Dong M, van der Kuip H, Wernitznig A, Bernthaler A, Dolznig H, Sommergruber W
      PLoS ONE, 0;10(4):e0124283.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Expand to show all 41 Citations
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