|Detection of IL‑1 RI in HUVEC Human Cells by Flow Cytometry. HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stained with Goat Anti-Human IL‑1 RI Fluorescein‑conjugated Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB269F, filled histogram) or control antibody (Catalog # IC108F, open histogram). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.|
Two distinct types of receptors that bind the pleiotropic cytokines IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta have been described. The IL-1 receptor Type I is an 80 kDa transmembrane protein that is expressed predominantly by T cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. IL-1 receptor Type II is a 68 kDa transmembrane protein found on B lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, large granular leukocytes and endothelial cells. Both receptors are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily and show approximately 28% sequence identity in their extracellular domains. The two receptor types do not heterodimerize into a receptor complex.
An IL-1 receptor accessory protein that can heterodimerize with the Type I receptor in the presence of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta but not IL-1ra, was identified (1). This Type I receptor complex appears to mediate all the known IL-1 biological responses. The receptor Type II has a short cytoplasmic domain and does not transduce IL-1 signals. In addition to the membrane-bound form of IL-1 RII, a naturally-occurring soluble form of IL-1 RII has been described. It has been suggested that the Type II receptor, either as the membrane-bound or as the soluble form, serves as a decoy for IL-1 and inhibits IL-1 action by blocking the binding of IL-1 to the signaling Type I receptor complex. Recombinant IL-1 soluble receptor Type I is a potent antagonist of IL-1 action.
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