|Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑4 and Neutralization by Human IL‑4 Antibody. Recombinant Human IL‑4 (Catalog # 204-IL) stimulates proliferation in the TF‑1 human erythroleukemic cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human IL‑4 (0.5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human IL‑4 Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AB-204-NA). The ND50 is typically 0.05 - 0.2 µg/mL.|
Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13-18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses. It is a glycosylated polypeptide that contains three intrachain disulfide bridges and adopts a bundled four alpha -helix structure. Human IL-4 is synthesized with a 24 aa signal sequence. Alternate splicing generates an isoform with a 16 aa internal deletion. Mature human IL-4 shares 55%, 39%, and 43% aa sequence identity with bovine, mouse, and rat IL-4, respectively. Human, mouse, and rat IL-4 are species-specific in their activities. IL-4 exerts its effects through two receptor complexes. The type I receptor, which is expressed on hematopoietic cells, is a heterodimer of the ligand binding IL-4 R alpha and the common gamma chain (a shared subunit of the receptors for IL-2, -7, -9, -15, and -21). The type II receptor on nonhematopoietic cells consists of IL-4 R alpha and IL-13 R alpha 1. The type II receptor also transduces IL‑13 mediated signals. IL-4 is primarily expressed by Th2-biased CD4+ T cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. It promotes cell proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin class switch to IgG4 and IgE in human B cells, acquisition of the Th2 phenotype by naïve CD4+ T cells, priming and chemotaxis of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and the proliferation and activation of epithelial cells. IL-4 plays a dominant role in the development of allergic inflammation and asthma.
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