Human Lymphotoxin-alpha /TNF-beta Antibody Summary
Accession # P01374
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cytotoxicity Induced by Lymphotoxin‑ alpha /TNF‑ beta and Neutral-ization by Human Lymphotoxin-alpha /TNF-beta Antibody. Recombinant Human Lymphotoxin-a/TNF-beta (Catalog # 211-TB) induces cytotoxicity in the the L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by crystal violet staining. Cytotoxicity elicited by Recombinant Human Lymphotoxin-a/TNF-beta (50 pg/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Mouse Anti-Human Lymphotoxin-a/TNF-beta Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB211). The ND50is typically 75-600 ng/mL in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D.
Lymphotoxin‑ alpha /TNF‑ beta in Human PBMCs. Lymphotoxin-a/TNF-beta was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with LPS and monensin using Mouse Anti-Human Lymphotoxin-a/TNF-beta Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB211) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL007) and counter-stained with DAPI (blue). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF-beta ), also known as lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha ), and TNF-alpha, are two structurally and functionally related proteins that bind to the same cell surface receptors (TNF RI and TNF RII) and produce a vast range of similar, but not identical, effects. Among these effects is the ability to kill certain tumor cells directly, from which the names tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin both derive. Mature TNF-beta /LT-alpha and TNF-alpha share approximately 35% protein sequence homology and the biologically active secreted forms of both proteins are homotrimers. Whereas TNF-alpha can exist as a type II membrane protein, TNF-beta /LT-alpha possesses a typical signal peptide sequence and is a secreted protein. It has been shown that TNF-beta /LT-alpha is also present on the cell surface of activated T, B and LAK cells as a heteromeric complex with LT-beta, a type II membrane protein that is another member of the TNF ligand family. The genes for TNF-alpha, TNF-beta /LT-alpha, and LT-beta are closely linked within the major histocompatibility complex.
TNF-beta /LT-alpha is expressed in activated T- and B-lymphocytes. In addition to its cytotoxic action on tumor cells, TNF-beta /LT-alpha has been shown to be a mediator of inflammation and immune function. Evidence is also accumulating that TNF-beta /LT-alpha and TNF-alpha are mediators in the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune diseases. TNF-beta /LT-alpha has also been shown to have a role in lymphoid organ development. Human and mouse TNF-beta /LT-alpha share approximately 74% homology in their amino acid sequence and exhibit cross-species activity.
Citation for Human Lymphotoxin-alpha /TNF-beta Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
1 Citation: Showing 1 - 1
True infliximab resistance in rheumatoid arthritis: a role for lymphotoxin alpha?
Authors: Buch MH, Conaghan PG, Quinn MA, Bingham SJ, Veale D, Emery P
Ann. Rheum. Dis., 2004;63(10):1344-6.
Sample Types: Whole Tissue
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