|RGM‑C/Hemojuvelin in HepG2 Human Cell Line. RGM‑C/Hemojuvelin was detected in immersion fixed HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line using Goat Anti-Human/Mouse RGM‑C/Hemojuvelin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF3720) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Cells on Coverslips.|
RGM-C, also known as hemojuvelin, is a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family of GPI-linked neuronal and muscle membrane glycoproteins (1, 2). RGM-C is expressed in striated muscle and periportal hepatocytes (3-5). The protein undergoes partial cleavage intracellularly, resulting in a disulfide-linked dimer of the 14 kDa N-terminal and 33 kDa C-terminal portions (4, 6, 7). The N-terminal fragment contains an RGD motif, while the C-terminal fragment carries the GPI attachment site (4, 7). Two alternatively spliced isoforms lack either approximately half or the entire N-terminal fragment. Full length RGM-C can also be released from the cell and circulates in the blood (6, 8). RGM-C is disrupted in type 2A juvenile hemochromatosis, a hereditary iron homeostasis disorder characterized by excessive iron accumulation (5). In mouse, loss of RGM-C function results in decreased expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepicidin and increased iron deposition in liver, pancreas, and heart (5, 9). Membrane associated RGM-C upregulates hepicidin while soluble RGM-C downregulates hepicidin expression (8). This appears to be an iron-responsive regulatory system, as high blood iron levels reduce the amount of soluble RGM-C produced (8). RGM-C, similar to RGM-A, associates with neogenin (7). Disease-related point mutations can prevent internal RGM-C cleavage or its ability to interact with neogenin (6, 7). Experimental inflammatory conditions result in decreased RGM-C expression and increased hepicidin expression, although the two effects occur independently (5, 10). RGM-C also functions as a BMP coreceptor and enhances BMP-2 and BMP-4 signaling (11). In this context, RGM-C enhances the BMP-2 upregulation of hepatic hepicidin (11). Mature human RGM-C shares 89% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with mouse and rat RGM-C. It shares 49% and 44% aa sequence identity with human RGM-A and RGM-B, respectively.
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