Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antibody

Catalog # Availability Size / Price Qty
Detection of Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB by Western Blot.
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Product Details
Citations (35)
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Reviews (3)

Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antibody Summary

Species Reactivity
Detects human Osteoactivin in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 2% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse Osteoactivin is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Antigen Affinity-purified
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human Osteoactivin isoform b
Accession # NP_002501
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied either lyophilized or as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.


Recommended Concentration
Western Blot
0.5 µg/mL
See below
5-15 µg/mL
See below

Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Sandwich Immunoassay

Recommended Concentration
ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
0.2-0.8 µg/mL 

Use in combination with:

Detection Reagent: Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF2550)

Standard: Recombinant Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Fc Chimera Protein, CF (Catalog # 2550-AC)

Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.

Scientific Data

Western Blot Detection of Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB antibody by Western Blot. View Larger

Detection of Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of U-118-MG human glioblastoma/astrocytoma cell line and T98G human glioblastoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.5 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2550) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). Specific bands were detected for Osteoactivin/GPNMB at approximately 95 and 120 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.

Immunohistochemistry Osteoactivin/GPNMB antibody in Human Liver by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P). View Larger

Osteoactivin/GPNMB in Human Liver. Osteoactivin/GPNMB was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human liver using Goat Anti-Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2550) at 3 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to Kupffer cells. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.

Reconstitution Calculator

Reconstitution Calculator

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Preparation and Storage

Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
  • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
  • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.

Background: Osteoactivin/GPNMB

Osteoactivin (also GPNMB and DC-HIL) is a variably glycosylated 75 - 125 kDa member of the NMB/pMEL-17 family of molecules. It is found in multiple subcellular sites, but is most often associated with the endosomal/lysosomal compartment (1-3). Human Osteoactivin is a 560 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane protein. Its precursor contains a 21 aa signal sequence, a 465 aa luminal/extracellular domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment and a 53 aa cytoplasmic tail (4, 5). The luminal region contains an N-terminal heparin-binding motif (aa 23-26), multiple glycosylation sites, an RGD motif (aa 64-66) and an 88 aa PKD domain (aa 240-327). The intracellular tail has an ITAM (Y-x-x-I) and lysosomal targeting (L-L) motif (4, 5). The extracellular/luminal region shares 74% and 77% aa identity with the equivalent regions in mouse and canine, respectively. Multiple isoforms would appear to exist. There is one alternate splice form known that shows a 12 aa insert between aa 339-340 (6). An addtional 206 aa isoform shows a mutation at position # 181 that results in a 26 aa substitution for the C-terminal 380 amino acids (7, 8). This has the potential to be soluble and may represent a counterpart to a secreted isoform of rat Osteoactivin (9). Cells known to express Osteoactivin include macrophages/Kupffer cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, myeloid dendritic cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells and melanocytes, plus fetal chondrocytes and stratum basale keratinocytes (3-5, 10-12). In mice, Osteoactivin is reported to bind to heparan sulfate-proteoglycan, possibly on the surface of endothelial cells and may also interact with integrins (13). It also appears to act as an inflammatory suppressor gene, as its expression downregulates the macrophage inflammatory response by inhibiting IL-6 and IL-12 p40 production (3).

  1. Bachner, D. et al. (2002) Gene Exp. Patterns 1:159.
  2. Safadi, F.F. et al. (2002) J. Cell. Biochem. 84:12.
  3. Ripoll, V.M. et al. (2007) J. Immunol. 178:6557. 
  4. Owen, T.A. et al. (2003) Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. 13:205. 
  5. Weterman, M.A.J. et al. (1995) Int. J. Cancer 60:73. 
  6. Kuan, C-T. et al. (2006) Clin. Cancer Res. 12:1970. 
  7. Lennerz, V. et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:16013.
  8. Genbank Accession # AAH11595.
  9. Abdelmagid, S.M. et al. (2007) J. Cell. Physiol. 210:26.
  10. Haralanova-Ilieva, B. et al. (2005) J. Hepatol. 42:565.
  11. Ahn, J.H. et al. (2002) Blood 100:1742.
  12. Anderson, M.G. et al. (2002) Nat. Genet. 30:81.
  13. Shikano, S. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276:8125.
Long Name
Glycoprotein Non-Metastatic Melanoma Protein B
Entrez Gene IDs
10457 (Human); 93695 (Mouse); 113955 (Rat); 102133517 (Cynomolgus Monkey)
Alternate Names
DC-HIL; glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb; glycoprotein NMB; GPNMB; HGFIN; HGFINglycoprotein nmb-like protein; NMBosteoactivin; Osteoactivin; Transmembrane glycoprotein HGFIN; transmembrane glycoprotein NMB

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Citations for Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antibody

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

35 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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  1. Transcriptional and Immune Landscape of Cardiac Sarcoidosis
    Authors: Jing Liu, Pan Ma, Lulu Lai, Ana Villanueva, Andrew Koenig, Gregory R. Bean et al.
    Circulation Research
  2. NFATc2 is an intrinsic regulator of melanoma dedifferentiation.
    Authors: V Perotti, P Baldassari, A Molla et al.
  3. Progranulin deficiency results in sex-dependent alterations in microglia in response to demyelination
    Authors: Zhang T, Feng T, Wu K et al.
    Acta Neuropathologica
  4. The PKD domain distinguishes the trafficking and amyloidogenic properties of the pigment cell protein PMEL and its homologue GPNMB
    Authors: Alexander C. Theos, Brenda Watt, Dawn C. Harper, Karolina J. Janczura, Sarah C. Theos, Kathryn E. Herman et al.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
  5. High-throughput and targeted drug screens identify pharmacological candidates against MiT-translocation renal cell carcinoma
    Authors: Martin Lang, Laura S. Schmidt, Kelli M. Wilson, Christopher J. Ricketts, Carole Sourbier, Cathy D. Vocke et al.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
  6. A single-cell atlas of the normal and malformed human brain vasculature
    Authors: Ethan A. Winkler, Chang N. Kim, Jayden M. Ross, Joseph H. Garcia, Eugene Gil, Irene Oh et al.
  7. PRDM10 directs FLCN expression in a novel disorder overlapping with Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome and familial lipomatosis
    Authors: Irma van de Beek, Iris E Glykofridis, Jan C Oosterwijk, Peter C van den Akker, Gilles F H Diercks, Maria C Bolling et al.
    Human Molecular Genetics
  8. Proteomic analysis of alcohol-associated hepatitis reveals glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB) as a novel hepatic and serum biomarker
    Authors: Peter S. Harris, Cole R. Michel, Youngho Yun, Courtney D. McGinnis, Mohammed A. Assiri, Ali Reza Ahmadi et al.
  9. PRDM10 RCC: A Birt-Hogg-Dubé-like Syndrome Associated with Lipoma and a Highly Penetrant, Aggressive Renal Tumors Morphologically Resembling Type 2 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma
    Authors: Schmidt, LS;Vocke, CD;Ricketts, CJ;Blake, Z;Choo, KK;Nielsen, D;Gautam, R;Crooks, DR;Reynolds, KL;Krolus, JL;Bashyal, M;Karim, B;Cowen, EW;Malayeri, AA;Merino, MJ;Srinivasan, R;Ball, MW;Zbar, B;Marston Linehan, W;
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  10. ImmunoPET Imaging Identifies the Optimal Timepoint for Combination Therapy in Xenograft Models of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
    Authors: Z Li, E Belitzky, O Blaha, A Cavaliere, SR Katz, M Aboian, L Melegari, K Rajabimogh, S Kurpiewski, X Zhu, B Marquez-No
    Cancers, 2023-03-03;15(5):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  11. Clustering-independent estimation of cell abundances in bulk tissues using single-cell RNA-seq data
    Authors: RG Aubin, J Montelongo, R Hu, PG Camara
    bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology, 2023-02-07;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  12. A novel missense mutation in the folliculin gene associated with the renal tumor-only phenotype of Birt-Hogg-Dub� syndrome
    Authors: T Sano, T Fukui, N Makita, K Shimizu, J Kono, K Masui, T Sato, T Goto, A Sawada, M Fujimoto, F Kojima, M Torishima, T Wada, M Furuya, O Ogawa, T Kobayashi, S Akamatsu
    Cancer genetics, 2022-06-05;266(0):28-32.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates, Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC, Western Blot
  13. Amyloidosis cutis dyschromica cases caused by GPNMB mutations with different inheritance patterns
    Authors: W Qin, H Wang, W Zhong, J Bai, J Qiao, Z Lin
    Journal of dermatological science, 2021-08-10;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC, Western Blot
  14. Classification of node-positive melanomas into prognostic subgroups using keratin, immune, and melanogenesis expression patterns
    Authors: D Netanely, S Leibou, R Parikh, N Stern, H Vaknine, R Brenner, S Amar, RH Factor, T Perluk, J Frand, E Nizri, D Hershkovit, V Zemser-Wer, C Levy, R Shamir
    Oncogene, 2021-02-09;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  15. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF)-Related Renal Cell Carcinoma
    Authors: M Lang, CD Vocke, CJ Ricketts, AR Metwalli, MW Ball, LS Schmidt, WM Linehan
    Urology, 2020-11-24;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  16. Network analysis of the progranulin-deficient mouse brain proteome reveals pathogenic mechanisms shared in human frontotemporal dementia caused by GRN mutations
    Authors: M Huang, E Modeste, E Dammer, P Merino, G Taylor, DM Duong, Q Deng, CJ Holler, M Gearing, D Dickson, NT Seyfried, T Kukar
    Acta Neuropathol Commun, 2020-10-07;8(1):163.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Protein
    Applications: Western Blot
  17. GPNMB is expressed in human epidermal keratinocytes but disappears in the vitiligo lesional skin
    Authors: KB Biswas, A Takahashi, Y Mizutani, S Takayama, A Ishitsuka, L Yang, F Yang, A Iddamalgod, I Katayama, S Inoue
    Sci Rep, 2020-03-18;10(1):4930.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Cells
    Applications: ICC, Western Blot
  18. Role of the kringle-like domain in glycoprotein NMB for its tumorigenic potential
    Authors: R Xie, Y Okita, Y Ichikawa, MA Fikry, KT Huynh Dam, STP Tran, M Kato
    Cancer Sci., 2019-06-26;110(7):2237-2246.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Types: Whole Cells
    Applications: Flow Cytometry, ICC
  19. TFE3 Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma mouse model reveals novel therapeutic targets and identifies GPNMB as a diagnostic marker for human disease
    Authors: M Baba, M Furuya, T Motoshima, M Lang, S Funasaki, W Ma, HW Sun, H Hasumi, Y Huang, I Kato, T Kadomatsu, Y Satou, N Morris, BO Karim, L Ileva, JD Kalen, LA Wilan Kris, Y Hasumi, A Sugiyama, R Kurahashi, K Nishimoto, M Oyama, Y Nagashima, N Kuroda, K Araki, M Eto, M Yao, T Kamba, T Suda, Y Oike, LS Schmidt, WM Linehan
    Mol. Cancer Res., 2019-05-01;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Paraffin-Embedded Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  20. GPNMB methylation: a new marker of potentially carcinogenic colon lesions
    Authors: H Ashktorab, H Rahi, M Nouraie, B Shokrani, E Lee, T Haydari, AO Laiyemo, P Siegel, H Brim
    BMC Cancer, 2018-11-06;18(1):1068.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC
  21. Glycoprotein nmb is exposed on the surface of dormant breast cancer cells and induces stem cell-like properties
    Authors: C Chen, Y Okita, Y Watanabe, F Abe, MA Fikry, Y Ichikawa, H Suzuki, A Shibuya, M Kato
    Cancer Res., 2018-09-17;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Cells, Whole Tissue
    Applications: FACS, IHC
  22. Direct molecular dissection of tumor parenchyma from tumor stroma in tumor xenograft using mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomics
    Authors: X Ye, BT Luke, BR Wei, JA Kaczmarczy, J Loncarek, JE Dwyer, DJ Johann, RG Saul, DV Nissley, F McCormick, GR Whiteley, J Blonder
    Oncotarget, 2018-05-29;9(41):26431-26452.
    Species: Xenograft
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  23. Clinical Significance of Glycoprotein Non-metastatic B and Its Association with EGFR/HER2 in Gastrointestinal Cancer
    Authors: JY Tajima, M Futamura, S Gaowa, R Mori, T Tanahashi, Y Tanaka, N Matsuhashi, T Takahashi, K Yamaguchi, T Miyazaki, K Yoshida
    J Cancer, 2018-01-01;9(2):358-366.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  24. Exploratory study on the effect of osteoactivin on muscle regeneration in a rat volumetric muscle loss model
    Authors: J Ma, AR Baker, A Calabro, KA Derwin
    PLoS ONE, 2017-04-20;12(4):e0175853.
    Applications: IHC-Fr
  25. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death
    Authors: Yuki Nagahara
    J. Neurosci. Res, 2016-12-09;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  26. Identification of a biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid for neuronopathic forms of Gaucher disease.
    Authors: Zigdon, Hila, Savidor, Alon, Levin, Yishai, Meshcheriakova, Anna, Schiffmann, Raphael, Futerman, Anthony
    PLoS ONE, 2015-03-16;10(3):e0120194.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: CSF
    Applications: Western Blot
  27. GPNMB/OA protein increases the invasiveness of human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 through MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity.
    Authors: Fiorentini C, Bodei S, Bedussi F, Fragni M, Bonini S, Simeone C, Zani D, Berruti A, Missale C, Memo M, Spano P, Sigala S
    Exp Cell Res, 2014-02-28;323(1):100-11.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates
    Applications: Western Blot
  28. Hematopoietic growth factor inducible neurokinin-1 (Gpnmb/Osteoactivin) is a biomarker of progressive renal injury across species.
    Authors: Patel-Chamberlin M, Wang Y, Satirapoj B
    Kidney Int., 2011-03-09;79(10):1138-48.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P
  29. Inactivation of the FLCN tumor suppressor gene induces TFE3 transcriptional activity by increasing its nuclear localization.
    Authors: Hong SB, Oh H, Valera VA, Baba M, Schmidt LS, Linehan WM
    PLoS ONE, 2010-12-29;5(12):e15793.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P, Western Blot
  30. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic B is an independent prognostic indicator of recurrence and a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.
    Authors: Rose AA, Grosset AA, Dong Z, Russo C, Macdonald PA, Bertos NR, St-Pierre Y, Simantov R, Hallett M, Park M, Gaboury L, Siegel PM
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2010-03-09;16(7):2147-56.
    Species: Human
    Sample Types: Cell Lysates, Whole Tissue
    Applications: IHC-P, Western Blot
  31. MAPK Pathway Inhibitors Sensitize BRAF-Mutant Melanoma to an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting GPNMB
    Authors: April A. N. Rose, Matthew G. Annis, Dennie T. Frederick, Marco Biondini, Zhifeng Dong, Lawrence Kwong et al.
    Clinical Cancer Research
  32. Glycoprotein Nonmetastatic Melanoma Protein B as Potential Imaging Marker in Posttherapeutic Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer
    Authors: Jeroen E. van Schaik, Saskia H. Hanemaaijer, György B. Halmos, Max J. H. Witjes, Bernard F. A. M. van der Laan, Bert van der Vegt et al.
    Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery
  33. The glycoprotein GPNMB is selectively elevated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients and increases after lysosomal stress
    Authors: Elizabeth B. Moloney, Alyssa Moskites, Eliza J. Ferrari, Ole Isacson, Penelope J. Hallett
    Neurobiology of Disease
  34. Glycoprotein non–metastatic melanoma protein B functions with growth factor signaling to induce tumorigenesis through its serine phosphorylation
    Authors: Chen Wang, Yukari Okita, Ling Zheng, Yasuhiro Shinkai, Lev Manevich, Jas M. Chin et al.
    Cancer Science
  35. Loss of FLCN-FNIP1/2 induces a noncanonical interferon response in human renal tubular epithelial cells
    Authors: Glykofridis IE, Knol JC, Balk JA et al.


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Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antibody
By Laboratorio Inmuno-Oncología on 09/27/2023
Application: Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Sample Tested: Melanoma tissue Species: Human

Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antibody
By Anonymous on 02/23/2023
Application: WB Sample Tested: Adult brain (hippocampus) Species: Human

primary Ab 1 :1000

Human Osteoactivin/GPNMB Antibody
By Anonymous on 01/21/2021
Application: IHC Sample Tested: Adult spinal cord Species: Human

Human specimens were deparaffinized and rehydrated before immunohistochemistry. The sections were blocked with 10% goat serum in PBS, then incubated overnight at 4 °C with the GPNMB antibody.