• Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Assay Length
    3.5 hours or 4.5 hours
  • Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
    Cell Culture Supernates (100 uL), Serum (100 uL), EDTA Plasma (100 uL), Heparin Plasma (100 uL), Citrate Plasma (100 uL), Urine (100 uL)
  • Sensitivity
    7 pg/mL
  • Assay Range
    15.6 - 1,000 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Citrate Plasma, Urine)
  • Specificity
    Natural and recombinant human PlGF
  • Cross-reactivity
    Cross-reactivity observed with 1 or more available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity not tested.
  • Interference
    Interference observed with 1 or more available related molecules.
Control Available
Product Summary
The Quantikine Human PlGF Immunoassay is a 3.5 or 4.5 hour solid phase ELISA designed to measure human PlGF in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, and urine. The immunoassay kit contains E. coli-expressed recombinant human PlGF and antibodies raised against the recombinant factor. This immunoassay has been shown to quantitate recombinant human PlGF accurately. Results obtained using natural human PlGF showed dose curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the recombinant Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for natural human PlGF.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Cell Culture Supernates
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation2.47.338.26.413.532.9

Serum, EDTA Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Citrate Plasma, Urine
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation3.86.336.96.520.378.9


The recovery of PlGF spiked to three different levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Media (n=5) 97 82-107
Citrate Plasma (n=5) 99 93-120
EDTA Plasma (n=5) 102 92-117
Heparin Plasma (n=5) 94 81-113
Serum (n=5) 96 88-118
Urine (n=4) 97 85-112
To assess the linearity of the assay, five samples were spiked with high concentrations of PlGF in various matrices and diluted with the appropriate Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human PlGF Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: PlGF
PlGF (placenta growth factor) is a homodimeric growth factor that competes with VEGF for binding to VEGF R1/Flt-1. It therefore increases the availability of VEGF to bind to VEGF R2/KDR/Flk-1 and trigger angiogenesis. It can form heterodimers with some forms of VEGF and decrease the angiogenic effect of VEGF on VEGF R2. Circulating PlGF levels increase during pregnancy, reaching a peak in mid-gestation; this increase is attenuated in preeclampsia. PlGF induces monocyte activation and migration as well as production of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF. These activities facilitate wound, bone fracture, and cardiac repair, but also contribute to inflammation in active sickle cell disease and atherosclerosis. PlGF can also inhibit TIMP3 expression in the spleen, leading to immune triggering of hypertension.
    • Long Name
      Placenta Growth Factor
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      5228 (Human); 18654 (Mouse);
    • Alternate Names
      D12S1900; PGF; PGFL; placenta growth factor; placental growth factor; placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein; PlGF; PlGF-2; PLGFplacental growth factor-like; SHGC-10760;
    Related Research Areas
    Assay Procedure
    Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

    Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
    1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
    2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

    3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
    4.   Add 100 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

    5. 100 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
    6.   Add 100 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
    7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

    8. 200 µL Conjugate
    9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well.
    10.   For Serum, Plasma, & Urine Samples: Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours.
      For Cell Culture Supernate Samples: Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 1 hour.
    11.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

    12. 200 µL Substrate Solution
    13.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

    14. 50 µL Stop Solution
    15. Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    Showing Results 1 - 10 of 44
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    Sample Type
    1. Inhibition of placental growth factor in renal cell carcinoma.
      Authors: Bessho H, Wong B, Huang D, Siew E, Huang D, Tan J, Ong C, Tan S, Matsumoto K, Iwamura M, Teh B
      Anticancer Res, 2015;35(1):531-41.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    2. Elastase induces lung epithelial cell autophagy through placental growth factor: a new insight of emphysema pathogenesis.
      Authors: Hou H, Cheng S, Chung K, Kuo M, Yeh C, Chang B, Lu H, Wang H, Yu C
      Autophagy, 2014;10(9):1509-21.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    3. Placental growth factor and soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 in diabetic pregnancy: A possible relation to distal villous immaturity.
      Authors: El-Tarhouny S, Almasry S, Elfayomy A, Baghdadi H, Habib F
      Histol Histopathol, 2014;29(2):259-72.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent breast cancer-mesenchymal stem cell bidirectional signaling promotes metastasis.
      Authors: Chaturvedi, Pallavi, Gilkes, Daniele, Wong, Carmen C, Luo, Weibo, Zhang, Huafeng, Wei, Hong, Takano, Naoharu, Schito, Luana, Levchenko, Andre, Semenza, Gregg L
      J Clin Invest, 2013;123(1):189-205.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    5. Integrating multiple 'omics' analyses identifies serological protein biomarkers for preeclampsia.
      Authors: Liu, Linda Y, Yang, Ting, Ji, Jun, Wen, Qiaojun, Morgan, Alexande, Jin, Bo, Chen, Gongxing, Lyell, Deirdre, Stevenson, David K, Ling, Xuefeng, Butte, Atul J
      BMC Med, 2013;11(0):236.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    6. Biomarkers for antitumor activity of bevacizumab in gastric cancer models.
      Authors: Yamashita-Kashima Y, Fujimoto-Ouchi K, Yorozu K, Kurasawa M, Yanagisawa M, Yasuno H, Mori K
      BMC Cancer, 2012;12(0):37.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    7. Cytokine and angiogenic factors associated with efficacy and toxicity of pazopanib in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma: an EORTC-STBSG study.
      Br. J. Cancer, 2012;107(4):639-45.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    8. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of sunitinib in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors: a children's oncology group study.
      Authors: Dubois SG, Shusterman S, Ingle AM, Ahern CH, Reid JM, Wu B, Baruchel S, Glade-Bender J, Ivy P, Grier HE, Adamson PC, Blaney SM
      Clin. Cancer Res., 2011;17(15):5113-22.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    9. Myeloid Biomarkers Associated with Glioblastoma Response to Anti-VEGF Therapy with Aflibercept.
      Authors: de Groot JF, Piao Y, Tran H, Gilbert M, Wu HK, Liu J, Bekele BN, Cloughesy T, Mehta M, Robins HI, Lassman A, Deangelis L, Camphausen K, Chen A, Yung W, Prados M, Wen PY, Heymach JV
      Clin. Cancer Res., 2011;17(14):4872-4881.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    10. Expression and prognostic value of circulating angiogenic cytokines in pancreatic cancer.
      Authors: Rahbari NN, Schmidt T, Falk CS, Hinz U, Herber M, Bork U, Buchler MW, Weitz J, Koch M
      BMC Cancer, 2011;11(0):286.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    11. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic angiogenesis-related markers of first-line FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab schedule in metastatic colorectal cancer.
      Authors: Loupakis F, Cremolini C, Fioravanti A
      Br. J. Cancer, 2011;104(8):1262-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    12. Effect of smoking on circulating angiogenic factors in high risk pregnancies.
      Authors: Jeyabalan A, Powers RW, Clifton RG, Van Dorsten P, Hauth JC, Klebanoff MA, Lindheimer MD, Sibai B, Landon M, Miodovnik M, Caritis S, Roberts JM, Kuller J, Cotroneo M, Kamon T, Mercer B, Ramsey R, Paul R, Rabello Y, McCart D, Mueller E, Goldenberg R, Copper R, Sorokin Y, Norman G, Millinder A, Christmas JT, McCoy S, Elder S, Elder N, Carter B, Pemberton V, Thurnau G, Meier A, Minton V, Meis P, Swain M, Moawad AH, Jones P, Iams JD, Meadows S, Brenner S, Collins B, Newman RB, Carter SG, Romero R, Sabo V, Thom E, Bain RP, MacPherson C, Johnson D, Fischer ML, McNellis D, Spong C, Catz C, Yaffe S
      PLoS ONE, 2010;5(10):e13270.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    13. Placental growth factor mediates aldosterone-dependent vascular injury in mice.
      Authors: Jaffe IZ, Newfell BG, Aronovitz M
      J. Clin. Invest., 2010;120(11):3891-900.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    14. Human pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1 (PSG1) has a potential role in placental vascular morphogenesis.
      Authors: Ha CT, Wu JA, Irmak S, Lisboa FA, Dizon AM, Warren JW, Ergun S, Dveksler GS
      Biol. Reprod., 2010;83(1):27-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    15. Placental Growth Factor: A Promising Diagnostic Biomarker for Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy.
      Authors: Horne AW, Shaw JL
      J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2010;0(0):.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    16. Placenta growth factor in sickle cell disease: association with hemolysis and inflammation.
      Authors: Brittain JE, Hulkower B, Jones SK, Strayhorn D, De Castro L, Telen MJ, Orringer EP, Hinderliter A, Ataga KI
      Blood, 2010;115(10):2014-20.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    17. Soluble fms-Like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) in preeclampsia among high risk pregnancies.
      Authors: Powers RW, Jeyabalan A, Clifton RG
      PLoS ONE, 2010;5(10):e13263.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    18. An automated method for the determination of the sFlt-1/PIGF ratio in the assessment of preeclampsia.
      Authors: Verlohren S, Galindo A, Schlembach D, Zeisler H, Herraiz I, Moertl MG, Pape J, Dudenhausen JW, Denk B, Stepan H
      Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2010;202(2):161.e1-161.e1.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    19. Placental growth factor neutralising antibodies give limited anti-angiogenic effects in an in vitro organotypic angiogenesis model.
      Authors: Brave SR, Eberlein C, Shibuya M, Wedge SR, Barry ST
      Angiogenesis, 2010;13(4):337-47.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    20. Potential role for plasma placental growth factor in predicting coronary heart disease risk in women.
      Authors: Cassidy A, Chiuve SE, Manson JE, Rexrode KM, Girman CJ, Rimm EB
      Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2009;29(1):134-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    21. Isolation and characterization of CD146+ multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.
      Authors: Sorrentino A, Ferracin M, Castelli G, Biffoni M, Tomaselli G, Baiocchi M, Fatica A, Negrini M, Peschle C, Valtieri M
      Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(8):1035-46.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    22. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its soluble receptor sFlt-1 by luteinizing hormone in vivo: implication for ovarian follicle angiogenesis.
      Authors: Gutman G, Barak V, Maslovitz S, Amit A, Lessing JB, Geva E
      Fertil. Steril., 2008;89(4):922-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    23. Plasma levels of soluble Tie2 and vascular endothelial growth factor distinguish critical limb ischemia from intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial disease.
      Authors: Findley CM, Mitchell RG, Duscha BD, Annex BH, Kontos CD
      J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2008;52(5):387-93.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    24. Endometrial NK cells are special immature cells that await pregnancy.
      Authors: Manaster I, Mizrahi S, Goldman-Wohl D, Sela HY, Stern-Ginossar N, Lankry D, Gruda R, Hurwitz A, Bdolah Y, Haimov-Kochman R, Yagel S, Mandelboim O
      J. Immunol., 2008;181(3):1869-76.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    25. Antitumor activity and biomarker analysis of sunitinib in patients with bevacizumab-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
      Authors: Rini BI, Michaelson MD, Rosenberg JE, Bukowski RM, Sosman JA, Stadler WM, Hutson TE, Margolin K, Harmon CS, DePrimo SE, Kim ST, Chen I, George DJ
      J. Clin. Oncol., 2008;26(22):3743-8.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    26. Cigarette smoke exposure and angiogenic factors in pregnancy and preeclampsia.
      Authors: Jeyabalan A, Powers RW, Durica AR, Harger GF, Roberts JM, Ness RB
      Am. J. Hypertens., 2008;21(8):943-7.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    27. Angiogenic growth factors in maternal and fetal serum in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.
      Authors: Wallner W, Sengenberger R, Strick R, Strissel PL, Meurer B, Beckmann MW, Schlembach D
      Clin. Sci., 2007;112(1):51-7.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    28. Selective functional exhaustion of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow of patients with postinfarction heart failure.
      Authors: Kissel CK, Lehmann R, Assmus B, Aicher A, Honold J, Fischer-Rasokat U, Heeschen C, Spyridopoulos I, Dimmeler S, Zeiher AM
      J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2007;49(24):2341-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Bone Marrow Plasma
    29. Multiple biomarker use for detection of adverse events in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome.
      Authors: Apple FS, Pearce LA, Chung A, Ler R, Murakami MM
      Clin. Chem., 2007;53(5):874-81.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    30. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) is a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic mediator secreted by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dB-cAMP)-differentiated glioblastoma cells.
      Authors: Moreno MJ, Ball M, Andrade MF, McDermid A, Stanimirovic DB
      Glia, 2006;53(8):845-57.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    31. Placenta growth factor in diabetic wound healing: altered expression and therapeutic potential.
      Authors: Cianfarani F, Zambruno G, Brogelli L, Sera F, Lacal PM, Pesce M, Capogrossi MC, Failla CM, Napolitano M, Odorisio T
      Am. J. Pathol., 2006;169(4):1167-82.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    32. Circulating angiogenic factors in preeclampsia, gestational proteinuria, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic glomerulonephritis.
      Authors: Masuyama H, Suwaki N, Nakatsukasa H, Masumoto A, Tateishi Y, Hiramatrsu Y
      Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2006;194(2):551-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    33. Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia.
      Authors: Levine RJ, Lam C, Qian C, Yu KF, Maynard SE, Sachs BP, Sibai BM, Epstein FH, Romero R, Thadhani R, Karumanchi SA
      N. Engl. J. Med., 2006;355(10):992-1005.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    34. Cardiac expression of placental growth factor predicts the improvement of chronic phase left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
      Authors: Iwama H, Uemura S, Naya N, Imagawa K, Takemoto Y, Asai O, Onoue K, Okayama S, Somekawa S, Kida Y, Takeda Y, Nakatani K, Takaoka M, Kawata H, Horii M, Nakajima T, Doi N, Saito Y
      J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2006;47(8):1559-67.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    35. Relation of various plasma growth factor levels in patients with stable angina pectoris and total occlusion of a coronary artery to the degree of coronary collaterals.
      Authors: Briguori C, Testa U, Colombo A, Petrucci E, Condorelli G, Airoldi F, Peschle C, Condorelli G
      Am. J. Cardiol., 2005;97(4):472-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    36. Urinary angiogenic factors cluster hypertensive disorders and identify women with severe preeclampsia.
      Authors: Buhimschi CS, Norwitz ER, Funai E, Richman S, Guller S, Lockwood CJ, Buhimschi IA
      Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2005;192(3):734-41.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Urine
    37. Urinary placental growth factor and risk of preeclampsia.
      Authors: Levine RJ, Thadhani R, Qian C, Lam C, Lim KH, Yu KF, Blink AL, Sachs BP, Epstein FH, Sibai BM, Sukhatme VP, Karumanchi SA
      JAMA, 2005;293(1):77-85.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Urine
    38. Circulating angiogenic factors and the risk of preeclampsia.
      Authors: Levine RJ, Maynard SE, Qian C, Lim KH, England LJ, Yu KF, Schisterman EF, Thadhani R, Sachs BP, Epstein FH, Sibai BM, Sukhatme VP, Karumanchi SA
      N. Engl. J. Med., 2004;350(7):672-83.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    39. A potential pro-angiogenic cell therapy with human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells.
      Authors: Nishishita T, Ouchi K, Zhang X, Inoue M, Inazawa T, Yoshiura K, Kuwabara K, Nakaoka T, Watanabe N, Igura K, Takahashi TA, Yamashita N
      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2004;325(1):24-31.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    40. Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria in preeclampsia.
      Authors: Maynard SE, Min JY, Merchan J, Lim KH, Mondal S, Stillman IE, Epstein FH, Karumanchi SA
      J. Clin. Invest., 2003;111(5):649-58.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    41. Overexpression of placenta growth factor contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema.
      Authors: Tsao PN, Su YN, Li H, Huang PH, Chien CT, Lai YL, Lee CN, Chen CA, Cheng WF, Wei SC, Yu CJ, Hsieh FJ, Hsu SM
      Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2003;169(4):505-11.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    42. Vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors that regulate human cytotrophoblast survival are dysregulated in severe preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.
      Authors: Zhou Y, McMaster M, Woo K, Janatpour M, Perry J, Karpanen T, Alitalo K, Damsky C, Fisher SJ
      Am. J. Pathol., 2002;160(4):1405-23.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    43. A longitudinal study of biochemical variables in women at risk of preeclampsia.
      Authors: Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briley A, Kelly FJ, Hunt BJ, Charnock-Jones DS, Mallet AI, Poston L
      Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 2002;187(1):127-36.
    44. A critical role of placental growth factor in the induction of inflammation and edema formation.
      Authors: Oura H, Bertoncini J, Velasco P, Brown LF, Carmeliet P, Detmar M
      Blood, 2002;101(2):560-7.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Lysates
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    1. Does the Human PlGF Quantikine® ELISA Kit, Catalog # DPG00, detect free or total PlGF?

      • Soluble receptors or other binding proteins present in biological samples do not necessarily interfere with the measurement of ligands in samples. However, until the factors have been tested in the Quantikine® Immunoassay, the possibility of interference cannot be excluded. We cannot claim Catalog # DPG00 to be a "free" or "total" PlGF detecting kit, since all possible binding factors have not been tested. 

        Specificity testing performed using rhFlt-1/Fc (VEGF R1) for interference demonstrated interference at levels greater than 2000 pg/mL. Details of this testing can be found in the DPG00 product insert. Most samples will have lower levels of sFlt-1 than 2000 pg/ml.

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