• Assay Type
    Solid Phase Sandwich ELISA
  • Format
    96-well strip plate
  • Assay Length
    4.5 hours
  • Sample Type & Volume Required Per Well
    Cell Culture Supernates (50 uL), Serum (10 uL), EDTA Plasma (50 uL), Platelet-poor Plasma (50 uL), Heparin Plasma (50 uL), Saliva (50 uL)
  • Sensitivity
    48.4 pg/mL
  • Assay Range
    109.0 - 7,000 pg/mL (Cell Culture Supernates, Serum, EDTA Plasma, Platelet-poor Plasma, Heparin Plasma, Saliva)
  • Specificity
    Natural human VEGF-C, recombinant human VEGF-C (wild type), and recombinant human VEGF-C (Cys156Ser substituted)
  • Cross-reactivity
    < 0.5% cross-reactivity observed with available related molecules.Cross-species reactivity not tested.
  • Interference
    No significant interference observed with available related molecules.
Control Available
Product Summary
The Quantikine Human VEGF-C Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human VEGF-C in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma, and saliva. It contains NS0-expressed recombinant human VEGF-C (Cys156Ser substituted) and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. Results obtained using recombinant human VEGF-C (wild type) and natural human VEGF-C showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring human VEGF-C.

Intra-Assay Precision (Precision within an assay) Three samples of known concentration were tested on one plate to assess intra-assay precision.
Inter-Assay Precision (Precision between assays) Three samples of known concentration were tested in separate assays to assess inter-assay precision.
Cell Culture Supernates, Saliva
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation39.354.413650.1102200

Serum, EDTA Plasma, Platelet-poor Plasma, Heparin Plasma
Intra-Assay Precision Inter-Assay Precision
Standard Deviation33.854.213643.6110198


The recovery of VEGF-C spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated.

Sample Type Average % Recovery Range %
Cell Culture Supernates (n=4) 107 93-115
EDTA Plasma (n=4) 101 96-110
Heparin Plasma (n=4) 97 88-103
Serum (n=4) 99 89-106
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of VEGF-C were serially diluted with the appropriate Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
Human VEGF-C Quantikine ELISA Kit
Preparation and Storage
  • Storage
    Store the unopened product at 2 - 8 °C. Do not use past expiration date.
Background: VEGF-C
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D constitute a VEGF subfamily that shares the conserved VEGF homology domain (VHD) with other VEGF family members, but is distinguished by their preferential formation of non-covalent homodimers. VEGF-C (Cys156Ser) is a selective agonist of VEGF R3 and does not bind VEGF R2 (Joukov, V. et. al., 1998, J. Biol. Chem. 273:6599).
    • Long Name
      Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
    • Entrez Gene IDs
      7424 (Human); 22341 (Mouse);
    • Alternate Names
      Flt4 ligand; Flt4-L; vascular endothelial growth factor C; Vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein; VEGFC; VEGF-C; VRPFLT4 ligand DHM;
    Related Research Areas
    Assay Procedure
    Refer to the product for complete assay procedure.

    Bring all reagents and samples to room temperature before use. It is recommended that all samples, standards, and controls be assayed in duplicate.
    1.   Prepare all reagents, standard dilutions, and samples as directed in the product insert.
    2.   Remove excess microplate strips from the plate frame, return them to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack, and reseal.

    3. 100 µL Assay Diluent
    4.   Add 100 µL of Assay Diluent to each well.

    5. 50 µL Standard, Control, or Sample
    6.   Add 50 µL of Standard, control, or sample to each well. Cover with a plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on a horizontal orbital microplate shaker.
    7.   Aspirate each well and wash, repeating the process 3 times for a total of 4 washes.

    8. 200 µL Conjugate
    9.   Add 200 µL of Conjugate to each well. Cover with a new plate sealer, and incubate at room temperature for 2 hours on the shaker.
    10.   Aspirate and wash 4 times.

    11. 200 µL Substrate Solution
    12.   Add 200 µL Substrate Solution to each well. Incubate at room temperature for 30 minutes on the benchtop. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

    13. 50 µL Stop Solution
    14.   Add 50 µL of Stop Solution to each well. Read at 450 nm within 30 minutes. Set wavelength correction to 540 nm or 570 nm.

    R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

    Showing Results 1 - 10 of 24
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    Sample Type
    1. Identification of tumour-reactive lymphatic endothelial cells capable of inducing progression of gastric cancer.
      Authors: Tokumoto M, Tanaka H, Tauchi Y, Kasashima H, Kurata K, Yashiro M, Sakurai K, Toyokawa T, Kubo N, Amano R, Kimura K, Muguruma K, Maeda K, Ohira M, Hirakawa K
      Br J Cancer, 2015;113(7):1046-54.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    2. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-delta agonist, reduces TNF-alpha-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells.
      Authors: Kimura H, Mikami D, Kamiyama K, Sugimoto H, Kasuno K, Takahashi N, Yoshida H, Iwano M
      Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2014;454(2):320-7.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: cell culture supernate
    3. Vascular endothelial growth factor c promotes ovarian carcinoma progression through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.
      Authors: Decio A, Taraboletti G, Patton V, Alzani R, Perego P, Fruscio R, Jurgensmeier J, Giavazzi R, Belotti D
      Am J Pathol, 2014;184(4):1050-61.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Ascites
    4. KML001 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells through suppression of NF-kappaB and VEGF-C.
      Authors: Yang M, Kim H, Lee K, Yang S, Lee J, Lee K, Rhee J
      Anticancer Res, 2014;34(7):3469-74.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell culture supernatant
    5. Long-term survival and biomarker correlates of tasquinimod efficacy in a multicenter randomized study of men with minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
      Authors: Armstrong A, Haggman M, Stadler W, Gingrich J, Assikis V, Polikoff J, Damber J, Belkoff L, Nordle O, Forsberg G, Carducci M, Pili R
      Clin Cancer Res, 2013;19(24):6891-901.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    6. Lysophosphatidic Acid Enhances Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Expression in Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells.
      Authors: Lin CE, Chen SU, Lin CC
      PLoS ONE, 2012;7(7):e41096.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    7. Co-expression of alpha9beta1 integrin and VEGF-D confers lymphatic metastatic ability to a human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468LN.
      Authors: Majumder M, Tutunea-Fatan E, Xin X, Rodriguez-Torres M, Torres-Garcia J, Wiebe R, Timoshenko AV, Bhattacharjee RN, Chambers AF, Lala PK
      PLoS ONE, 2012;7(4):e35094.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    8. Proteinuria triggers renal lymphangiogenesis prior to the development of interstitial fibrosis.
      Authors: Yazdani S, Poosti F, Kramer A, Mirkovic K, Kwakernaak A, Hovingh M, Slagman M, Sjollema K, de Borst M, Navis G, van Goor H, van den Born J
      PLoS ONE, 2012;7(11):e50209.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    9. Mechanism-related circulating proteins as biomarkers for clinical outcome in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sunitinib.
      Authors: Harmon CS, DePrimo SE, Raymond E, Cheng AL, Boucher E, Douillard JY, Lim HY, Kim JS, Lechuga MJ, Lanzalone S, Lin X, Faivre S
      J Transl Med, 2011;9(0):120.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    10. Prognostic significance of angiogenic factors in uterine cervical cancer.
      Authors: Landt S, Wehling M, Heidecke H, Jeschke S, Korlach S, Stoblen F, Schmid P, Blohmer JU, Lichtenegger W, Sehouli J, Kummel S
      Anticancer Res., 2011;31(8):2589-95.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    11. Paracrine and autocrine signals induce and maintain mesenchymal and stem cell states in the breast.
      Authors: Scheel C, Eaton E, Li S, Chaffer C, Reinhardt F, Kah K, Bell G, Guo W, Rubin J, Richardson A, Weinberg R
      Cell, 2011;145(6):926-40.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell culture supernatant
    12. Human pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1 (PSG1) has a potential role in placental vascular morphogenesis.
      Authors: Ha CT, Wu JA, Irmak S, Lisboa FA, Dizon AM, Warren JW, Ergun S, Dveksler GS
      Biol. Reprod., 2010;83(1):27-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    13. Phase I and pharmacological study of the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor JNJ-26483327 in patients with advanced solid tumours.
      Authors: Konings IR, de Jonge MJ, Burger H
      Br. J. Cancer, 2010;103(7):987-92.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    14. Efficacy, safety, and potential biomarkers of sunitinib monotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase II study.
      Authors: Zhu AX, Sahani DV, Duda DG, di Tomaso E, Ancukiewicz M, Catalano OA, Sindhwani V, Blaszkowsky LS, Yoon SS, Lahdenranta J, Bhargava P, Meyerhardt J, Clark JW, Kwak EL, Hezel AF, Miksad R, Abrams TA, Enzinger PC, Fuchs CS, Ryan DP, Jain RK
      J. Clin. Oncol., 2009;27(18):3027-35.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    15. Macrophages regulate salt-dependent volume and blood pressure by a vascular endothelial growth factor-C-dependent buffering mechanism.
      Authors: Machnik A, Neuhofer W, Jantsch J, Dahlmann A, Tammela T, Machura K, Park JK, Beck FX, Muller DN, Derer W, Goss J, Ziomber A, Dietsch P, Wagner H, Van Rooijen N, Kurtz A, Hilgers KF, Alitalo K, Eckardt KU, Luft FC, Kerjaschki D, Titze J
      Nat. Med., 2009;15(5):545-52.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    16. VEGF-C regulates lymphangiogenesis and capillary stability by regulation of PDGF-B.
      Authors: Onimaru M, Yonemitsu Y, Fujii T, Tanii M, Nakano T, Nakagawa K, Kohno R, Hasegawa M, Nishikawa S, Sueishi K
      Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol., 2009;297(5):H1685-96.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    17. Hypoxia-induced epithelial VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 upregulation in carcinoma cell lines.
      Authors: Simiantonaki N, Jayasinghe C, Michel-Schmidt R, Peters K, Hermanns MI, Kirkpatrick CJ
      Int. J. Oncol., 2008;32(3):585-92.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    18. Isolation and characterization of CD146+ multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.
      Authors: Sorrentino A, Ferracin M, Castelli G, Biffoni M, Tomaselli G, Baiocchi M, Fatica A, Negrini M, Peschle C, Valtieri M
      Exp. Hematol., 2008;36(8):1035-46.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    19. Cutting edge: rapid accumulation of epidermal CCL27 in skin-draining lymph nodes following topical application of a contact sensitizer recruits CCR10-expressing T cells.
      Authors: Huang V, Lonsdorf AS, Fang L, Kakinuma T, Lee VC, Cha E, Zhang H, Nagao K, Zaleska M, Olszewski WL, Hwang ST
      J. Immunol., 2008;180(10):6462-6.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum
    20. Antitumor activity and biomarker analysis of sunitinib in patients with bevacizumab-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
      Authors: Rini BI, Michaelson MD, Rosenberg JE, Bukowski RM, Sosman JA, Stadler WM, Hutson TE, Margolin K, Harmon CS, DePrimo SE, Kim ST, Chen I, George DJ
      J. Clin. Oncol., 2008;26(22):3743-8.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    21. Marrow angiogenesis-associated factors as prognostic biomarkers in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia.
      Authors: Lee CY, Tien HF, Hu CY, Chou WC, Lin LI
      Br. J. Cancer, 2007;97(7):877-82.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma
    22. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 is involved in tumor angiogenesis and growth.
      Authors: Laakkonen P, Waltari M, Holopainen T, Takahashi T, Pytowski B, Steiner P, Hicklin D, Persaud K, Tonra JR, Witte L, Alitalo K
      Cancer Res., 2007;67(2):593-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    23. Expression of Tie-2 and other receptors for endothelial growth factors in acute myeloid leukemias is associated with monocytic features of leukemic blasts.
      Authors: Riccioni R, Diverio D, Mariani G, Buffolino S, Riti V, Saulle E, Petrucci E, Cedrone M, Lo-Coco F, Foa R, Peschle C, Testa U
      Stem Cells, 2007;25(8):1862-71.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    24. Inhibition of lymphogenous metastasis using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer of a soluble VEGFR-3 decoy receptor.
      Authors: Lin J, Lalani AS, Harding TC
      Cancer Res., 2005;65(15):6901-9.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
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